Czarny Bóg i biały diabeł w miejskich gettach Ameryki. Religia i czarny nacjonalizm Narodu Islamu

Main Article Content

Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski

Abstrakt

Naród Islamu, potocznie nazywany ruchem Czarnych Muzułmanów, pojawił się podczas Wielkiej Depresji w czarnych gettach wielkich ośrodków miejsko-przemysłowych na północy Stanów Zjednoczonych. Założył go W. Fard Muhammad, bodaj najbardziej zagadkowa postać w historii czarnej Ameryki, uznana przez zwolenników za wcielenie Allaha. Jego doktryna była kombinacją skrajnie heterodoksyjnego czy „heretyckiego” islamu i czarnego nacjonalizmu. Ćwierć wieku później, pod przywództwem Elijaha Muhammada jako Wysłannika Allaha, marginalna sekta stała się najważniejszym spośród nowych ruchów religijnych, które pojawiły się w USA w dwudziestym wieku. Okazał się on największym i najdłużej istniejącym ruchem nacjonalistycznym czarnych w tym kraju. Władze federalne uznały jego działalność, w tym głoszony przezeń „czarny internacjonalizm”, za zagrożenie dla bezpieczeństwa narodowego. Z łona tego ruchu wyszedł wybitny czarny przywódca rewolucyjny, Malcolm X. Naród Islamu, zakorzeniony w najniższych warstwach czarnej klasy robotniczej, trwale i skutecznie kwestionuje liberalne kierownictwa czarnych społeczności, reprezentujące klasę średnią i aspirujące do integracji z białym społeczeństwem.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Dział
TEOLOGIA I KOLONIALIZM
Biogram autora

Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski

Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski (1943) – zajmuje się historią
i antropologią ruchów rewolucyjnych i masowych ruchów społecznych, dialektyką nierównomiernego i kombinowanego rozwoju oraz nacjonalizmem
narodów kolonialnych i zależnych. Jego najnowsza publikacja to Give Us Back Our Factories! Between Resisting Exploitation and the Struggle for Workers’ Power in Poland, 1944-1981, w antologii Ours to Master and to Own: Workers’ Control from the Commune to the Present
(2011). O czarnej kwestii, czarnym nacjonalizmie i tzw. Czarnych Muzułmanach w Stanach Zjednoczonych pisał wielokrotnie, m.in. w artykule Black Power („Etnografia Polska” 1969, t. 13), w książkach Qui a peur de Malcolm X? (wraz z F. Syllą, 1993) i Rap: Między Malcolmem X a subkulturą gangową (1994) oraz w antologii pod jego redakcją Malcolm X, révolutionnaire noir (1994). Jest zastępcą redaktora naczelnego miesięcznika „Le Monde diplomatique – Edycja polska” i redaktorem wydawanego
we Włoszech rocznika „Che Guevara - Quaderni della Fondazione Ernesto Che Guevara”.

Referencje

  1. Alexander-Floyd, N.G. 2007. Gender, Race, and Nationalism in Contemporary Black Politics. New York-Houndmills.
  2. Allen, Jr., E. 1994. ,,Waiting for Tojo: The Pro-Japan Vigil of Black Missourians, 1932-1943.” Gateway Heritage 1633.
  3. Allen, Jr., E. 1994. ,,When Japan Was „Champion of the Darker Races”: Satokata Takahashi and the Flowering of Black Messianic Nationalism.” The Black Scholar 24.
  4. Allen, Jr., E. 1996. ,,Religious Heterodoxy and Nationalist Tradition: The Continuing Evolution of the Nation of Islam.” The Black Scholar 26 3/4.
  5. Allen, Jr., E. 2000. Identity and Destiny: The Formative Views of the Moorish Science Temple and the Nation of Islam. W Muslims on the Americanization Path?, Oxford-New York.
  6. Ansari, Z.I. 1981. ,,Aspects of Black Muslim Theology.” Studia Islamica 53.
  7. Araki, K. 2007. ,,Building a New Racial World Order: Intersection of Pan-Asianism and Pan-Africanism in the Post-WWI World.” Keio University, Global Security Research Institute Working Paper 15.
  8. Aydin, C. 2007. The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought. New York.
  9. Baldwin, J. 1965. Następnym razem pożar: wybór esejów. Tłum. D. Passent. Warszawa.
  10. Barboza, S. 1994. American Jihad: Islam After Malcolm X. New York-Doubleday.
  11. Bay, M. 2000. The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925. New York-Oxford.
  12. Berg, H. 2005. ,,Mythmaking in the African American Muslim Context: The Moorish Science Temple, the Nation of Islam, and the American Society of Muslims.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73 3.
  13. Berg, H. 2009. Elijah Muhammad and Islam. New York-London.
  14. Beynon, E.D. 1938. ,,The Voodoo Cult among Negro Migrants in Detroit.” The American Journal of Sociology 436.
  15. Breitman, G. 1966. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. New York.
  16. Breitman, G. 1970. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York.
  17. Breitman, G. 1971. ,,The National Question and the Black Liberation Struggle in the United States.” in Fifty Years of World Revolution: An International Symposium, red. E. Mandel. New York.
  18. Breitman, G. 1978. Leon Trotsky on Black Nationalism and Self-Determination. New York-Toronto.
  19. Du Bois, W.E.B. 2009. Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept, Piscataway.
  20. Bowen, P.D. 2011. ,,Abdul Hamid Suleiman and the Origins of the Moorish Science Temple”. Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion 2 13.
  21. Breitman, G. 1963. ,,Freedom Now: The New Stage in the Struggle for Negro Emancipation and the Tasks of the SWP.” International Socialist Review 24 (4).
  22. Breitman, G. 1987. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York.
  23. Churchill, W., and J.V. Wall 1990. The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent. Boston.
  24. Clegg III, C.A. 1998. An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad. New York.
  25. Cruse, H. 2009. Rebellion or Revolution? Minneapolis-London.
  26. Curtis IV, E.E. 2002. Islam in Black America: Identity, Liberation, and Difference in African-American Islamic Thought. Albany.
  27. Curtis IV, E.E. 2006. Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960-1975. Chapel Hill.
  28. Curtis IV, E.E. 2009. ,,Islamism and Its African American Muslim Critics: Black Muslims in the Era of the Arab Cold War” W Black Routes to Islam. New York.
  29. Curtis IV, E.E., ed. 2010. Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. New York.
  30. Deutsch, N. 2000. ,,The Proximate Other: The Nation of Islam and Judaism.” W Black Zion: African American Religious Encounters with Judaism. New York-Oxford.
  31. Esenbel, S. 2002. ,,Japan and Islam Policy During the 1930s.” W Turning Points in Japanese History. Ichmond.
  32. Essien-Udom, E.U. 1964. Black Nationalism: A Search for an Identity in America. New York.
  33. Evanzz, K. 1992. The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York.
  34. Evanzz, K. 2001. The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad. New York.
  35. Evanzz, K. 2011. ,,Nation of Islam’s Founder Was Afghani; Suffered from Diabetes.” blog Truth Continuum, April 17.
  36. Finley, S.C. 2012. ,,The Meaning of Mother in Louis Farrakhan’s „Mother Wheel”: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Cosmology of the Nation of Islam’s UFO.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 802.
  37. Foner, P.S. 1982. Organized Labor and the Black Worker, 1619-1981. New York.
  38. Gambino, F. 1993. ,,The Transgression of a Laborer: Malcolm X in the Wilderness of America.” Radical History Review 55.
  39. Gardell, M. 1996. In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham.
  40. Gibson, D.M. 2008. ,,The Prophet in Detroit: Fard Muhammad and the Origins of the Nation of Islam.” U.S. Studies Online: The BAAS Postgraduate Journal 23.
  41. Gibson, D-M. 2012. A History of the Nation of Islam: Race, Islam, and the Quest for Freedom. Santa Barbara California: Praeger.
  42. Gillespie, A. 2005. ,,Malcolm X and His Autobiography: Identity Development and Self-narration.” Culture and Psychology 11.
  43. Gomez, M.A. 2005. Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas. Cambridge.
  44. Gordon, S.B. 2010. The Spirit of the Law: Religious Voices and the Constitution in Modern America. Cambridge.
  45. Al-Hadid, A.Y. 2002. ,,The Great Debate: Multiethnic Democracy or National Liberation." W Between Cross and Crescent: Christian and Muslim Perspectives on Malcolm and Martin. Gainesville.
  46. Hicks, J. 1957. ,,Riot Threat as Cops Beat Muslim: »God’s Angry Men« Tangle with Police.” New York Amsterdam News, 4th May.
  47. Hill, R.A., ed. 1985. The Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, vol. 4. Berkeley-Los Angeles-London.
  48. Horne, G. 2004. Race War: White Supremacy and the Japanese Attack on the British Empire. New York-London.
  49. Howell, S.F. 2009. Inventing the American Mosque: Early Muslims and Their Institutions in Detroit, 1910-1980, rozprawa doktorska, The University of Michigan. Ann Arbor.
  50. Jamal, H.K. 1973. From the Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York.
  51. Kaplan, F. 2009. 1959: The Year Everything Changed. Hoboken.
  52. Kelley, R.D.G. 1998. ,,House Negroes on the Loose: Malcolm X and the Black Bourgeoisie.” Callaloo 212.
  53. Knight, F. 2004. ,,Justifiable Homicide, Police Brutality, or Governmental Repression? The 1962 Los Angeles Police Shooting of Seven Members of the Nation of Islam.” in The Black Studies Reader, red. J. Bobo, C. Hudley, C. Michel. New York-London.
  54. Kowalewski, Z.M. 1994. Nationalisme noir et socialisme. W Malcolm X, révolutionnaire noir. Paris.
  55. Lacy, L.A. 2007. African Responses to Malcolm X. W Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing. Baltimore.
  56. Lieb, M. 1998. Children of Ezekiel: Aliens, UFOs, the Crisis of Race, and the Advent of the End Time. Durham.
  57. Lincoln, C.E. 1961. The Black Muslims in America. Boston.
  58. Lomax, L.E. 1968. To Kill a Black Man: The Shocking Parallel in the Lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. Los Angeles.
  59. Louis X 1964. ,,Malcolm – Muhammad’s Biggest Hypocrite.” Muhammad Speaks, April 12.
  60. McCloud, S. 2004. Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives, and Journalists, 1955-1993. Chapel Hill-London.
  61. McDermott, M. 2001. ,,Class Structure and Racial Consciousness Among Black Americans.” Critical Sociology 27 1.
  62. Malcolm X 1970. By Any Means Necessary. Pathfinder-New York.
  63. Malcolm X 1992. February 1965: The Final Speeches. Pathfinder-New York.
  64. Malcolm X 2001. The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches. New York.
  65. Malcolm X, and J. Forman 1962. ,,Separation or Integration: A Debate.” Dialogue Magazine 23.
  66. Marable, M. 2011. Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention. London-New York.
  67. Martin, T. 1986. Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Dover.
  68. Mazucci, L. 2005. ,,Going Back to Our Own: Interpreting Malcolm X’s Transition from Black Asiatic to Afro-American.” Souls 71.
  69. Moore, C. 1988. Castro, the Blacks, and Africa. Los Angeles.
  70. Moore, R.L. 1986. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans. New York-Oxford.
  71. Muhammad, E. 1957. The Supreme Wisdom: Solution to the So-Called Negroes’ Problem. Newport.
  72. Muhammad, E. 1965. ,,Message to the Blackman in America.” Muhammad Mosque of Islam 2.
  73. Muhammad, W. 2010. ,,Master W. Fard Muhammad and FBI COINTELPRO.” News January 4. http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/index.shtml/.
  74. Ogbar, J.O.G. 2005. Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity. Baltimore.
  75. Robinson, D.E. 2001. Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought. Cambridge.
  76. Roediger, D.R. 2007. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London-New York.
  77. Smith, J.I. 1999. Islam in America. New York.
  78. Stein, J. 1986. The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society. Baton Rouge-London.
  79. Stephan, J.J. 1984. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun: Japan’s Plans for the Conquest after Pearl Harbor. Honolulu.
  80. Stuckey, S. 1987. Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America. New York-Oxford.
  81. Taylor, U. 2003. ,,Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam: Separatism, Regendering, and a Secular Approach to Black Power after Malcolm X 1965-1975.” in Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940-1980. New York-Houndmills.
  82. The Historical Research Department of the Nation of Islam 1991. The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, vol. 1-2. Chicago.
  83. The Historical Research Department of the Nation of Islam 2010. Jews Selling Blacks: Slave Sale Advertising by American Jews. Chicago.
  84. ,,The Messenger Presents: The Muslim Program.” 1962. Muhammad Speaks 2 24.
  85. Turner, R.B. 2003. Islam in the African-American Experience. Bloomington.
  86. ,,U.S. at War: Takcihashi’s Blacks.” 1942. Time, 5th October.
  87. DesVerney, R. 1963. ,,Why White Radicals are Incapable of Understanding Black
  88. Nationalism.” Socialist Workers Party Discussion Bulletin 24 12.
  89. DesVerney, R. 1964. ,,White Radicals and Black Nationalism.” International Socialist Review 251.
  90. Williams, W. 2008. ,,Black Muslim Theology and the Classical Islamic Tradition: Possibilities of a Rapprochement.” The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 254.
  91. Wilson, P.L. 1993. Sacred Drift: Essays on the Margins of Islam. San Francisco.