Cechy psychiczne człowieka a idee transhumanizmu

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Beata Płonka

Abstract

Celem obecnych rozważań jest spojrzenie na problem udoskonalania człowieka, a zwłaszcza jego cech psychicznych, z perspektywy nauk biologicznych. Wprowadzono więc używane w biologii rozróżnienie genotypu i fenotypu, definicje cech dziedzicznych i nabytych oraz antropologiczną charakterystykę gatunku Homo sapiens przez cechy specyficznie ludzkie. Perspektywa biologiczna (a zwłaszcza ewolucyjna) wskazuje na ogromne trudności w określeniu charakteru i zakresu możliwych ulepszeń naszego gatunku, co związane jest między innymi z problematyką normy biologicznej oraz psychicznej. Wiele uwagi poświęcono złożonym zależnościom między genotypem i fenotypem w żywych organizmach, wyrażającym się m.in. przez polimorfizm oraz efekty epigenetyczne, a także związkom między genami i cechami psychicznymi człowieka. Ostatecznie stwierdzono, że udoskonalanie np. zdolności poznawczych wymaga pełnego zrozumienia tych związków i zależności, uwzględniającego także różnice indywidualne, które wciąż jest jednak dla nas nieosiągalne.

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Płonka, B. (1). Cechy psychiczne człowieka a idee transhumanizmu. ETHICS IN PROGRESS, 6(1), 154-184. https://doi.org/10.14746/eip.2015.1.12
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