Retoryka populizmu: struktura ponad sensem

Main Article Content

Patrycja Pichnicka-Trivedi

Abstrakt

Artykuł stanowi porównawcze studium polskiego i amerykańskiego prawicowego populizmu oraz sposobów ich funkcjonowania. Studium wykorzystuje analizę strukturalną jako główne narzędzie badawcze. Jego celem jest wykazanie, że w istocie to właśnie strukturalne podobieństwo odpowiada za sukces populizmów w różnych środowiskach. Badając przykłady populistycznej retoryki i zauważając zaskakującą skuteczność podobnych dyskursów w różnych politycznych i społecznych warunkach, eksponuję wewnętrzną strukturę populizmu(ów). Zauważam, że populizm(y) zbudowany(e) jest(są) przede wszystkim z pustych znaczących. Te znaczące mogą by następnie łączone w większe struktury. Wśród nich fundamentalna dla populizmu jest przede wszystkim struktura opozycji: “my”-“oni”. Takie mityczne struktury są wystarczająco elastyczne, by móc w nie wpisać dowolny podmiot lub przedmiot. Są też wystarczająco elastyczne, by przekraczać granice dziedzin i granice geopolityczne, by „wędrować” po globalnym świecie.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Pichnicka-Trivedi, P. (2021). Retoryka populizmu: struktura ponad sensem. Praktyka Teoretyczna, 42(4), 65-92. https://doi.org/10.14746/prt2021.4.3
Dział
ARTYKUŁY
Biogram autora

Patrycja Pichnicka-Trivedi, University of Warsaw

PATRYCJA PICHNICKA-TRIVEDI – is a Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Warsaw (Poland). She holds a Master’s Degree in Cultural Studies with Summa Cum Laude. She is also a graduate of Kolegium MISH, Bachelor of History of Art. Last year, she was chosen as a finalist in the Professor Jerzy Buzek competition for Scientific Debut 2019. She is writing a thesis on the representations of Otherness in popular culture. She is interested in intersectional studies, biomedical anthropology, posthuman studies and postcolonial studies.

Bibliografia

  1. Adorno, Theodor. 1981. “Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda.” In The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture, edited by Theodor Adorno and Jay M. Bernstein. London: Routledge.
  2. Ansart, Pierre. 1977. Idéologies, conflits et pouvoir. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  3. Appadurai, Arjun. 2006. Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger. Durham: Duke University Press.
  4. Augustin, Óscar Garcia. 2019. “Emotions and the Left in Denmark: Towards Left-Wing and Mainstream Populism.” In Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Routledge.
  5. Bauman, Zygmunt. 2017. Retrotopia. London: Polity Press.
  6. Benvenuto, Sergio. 2012. “On Populist Reason by Ernesto Laclau.” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291092189_On_Populist_Reason_by_Ernesto_Laclau.
  7. Betz, Hans-Georg. 2002. “Conditions Favoring the Success and Failure of Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties in Contemporary Democracies.” In Democracies and the Populist Challenge, edited by Yves Mény and Yves Surel. New York: Palgrave.
  8. Bhabha, Homi K. 1994. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.
  9. Bjerre-Poulsen, Niels. 1986. “Populism: A Brief Introduction to a Baffling Notion.” American Studies in Scandinavia 18(1): 27–36. https://doi.org/10.22439/asca.v18i1.1190
  10. Bryant, Nick. 2019. “How Will History Judge President Trump?” BBC News, January 17. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-46895634.
  11. Buchowski, Michał. 2016. “Making Anthropology Matter in the Heyday of Islamophobia and the ‘Refugee Crisis’: The Case of Poland.” Český lid: Etnologický časopis 103(1): 51–67. https://doi.org/10.21104/CL.2016.1.03.
  12. Canovan, Margaret. 1981. Populism. London: Junction Books.
  13. Canovan, Margaret. 1999. “Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy.” Political Studies 47(1): 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.00184.
  14. Chaumont, Jean-Michel. 2017. La concurrence des victimes: Génocide, identité, reconnaissance. Paris: La Découverte.
  15. Chimombo, Moira P.F., and Robert L. Roseberry. 1998. The Power of Discourse: An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge.
  16. Collins, Patricia Hill. 1993. “Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection.” Race, Sex & Class 1(1): 25–45.
  17. Cossarini, Paolo. 2019. “Filling the Vaccum? Passion, ‘The People,’ and Affective Communities.” In Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Routledge.
  18. Deiwiks, Christa. 2009. “Populism.” Living Reviews in Democracy.
  19. https://ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/gess/cis/cis-dam/CIS_DAM_2015/WorkingPapers/Living_Reviews_Democracy/Deiwiks.PDF
  20. Demertzis, Nicolas. 2006. “Emotions and Populism.” In Emotion, Politics and Society, edited by Simon Clarke, Paul Hoggett and Simon Thompson. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  21. D’Eramo, Marco. 2013. “Populism and the New Oligarchy.” Translated by Gregory Elliott. New Left Review 82: 5–28.
  22. Dunn, Elisabeth. 2019. Predatory Humanitarianism: Refugees, Asylum Seekers, and the Manhunt. Reflection on migration on the US-Mexico border. Lecture in IEiAK UW, Warszawa, October 26.
  23. Eklundh, Emmy. 2019. “Our Damned Weakeness: Tensjions Between Reason and Emotions in Podemos.” In Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Routledge.
  24. Forchtner, Bernhard, Michał Krzyżanowski, and Ruth Wodak. 2013. “Mediatization, Right-Wing Populism and Political Campaigning: The Case of the Austrian Freedom Party.” In Media Talk and Political Elections in Europe and America, edited by Mats Ekström and Andrew Tolson. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  25. Fuchs, Dieter, and Hans-Dieter Klingemann. 2019. “Globalization, Populism and Legitimacy in Contemporary Democracy.” In Democracy under Threat: A Crisis of Legitimacy?, edited by Ursula van Beek. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  26. Gdula, Maciej. 2017. Dobra zmiana w miastku. Neoautorytaryzm w Polskiej Polityce z Perspektywy Małego Miasta. With collaboration of Katarzyna Dębska and Kamil Trepka. Warszawa: Instytut Studiów Zaawansowanych.
  27. Glynos, Jason, and Aurelien Mondon. 2019. “The Political Logic of Populist Hype: The Case of Right-Wing Populism’s ‘Meteoric Rise’ and Its Relation to the Status Quo.” In: Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Routledge.
  28. Gordon, Peter E. 2017. “The Authoritarian Personality Revisited: Reading Adorno in the Age of Trump.” Boundary 2 44(2): 31–56. https://doi.org/10.1215/01903659-3826618.
  29. Gounari, Panayota. 2018. “Authoritarianism, Discourse and Social Media: Trump as the ‘American Agitator.’” In Critical Theory and Authoritarian Populism, edited by Jeremiah Morelock, 207–227. London: University of Westminster Press.
  30. Janion, Maria. 2000. Czy będziesz wiedział, co przeżyłeś. Gdańsk: Sic!
  31. Kaczyński, Jarosław. 2018. Enunciation during electoral convent in Olsztyn. September 21. youtube.com, bit.ly/2Jo8xv4.
  32. Kantorowicz, Ernst. 2016. The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  33. Kitschelt, Herbert. 2002. “Popular Dissatisfaction with Democracy: Populism and Party Systems.” In Democracies and the Populist Challenge, edited by Yves Mény and Yves Surel. New York: Palgrave.
  34. Kokutani, Michiko. 2018. “The Death of Truth: How We Gave Up on Facts and Ended Up with Trump.” The Guardian, June 14. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/jul/14/the-death-of-truth-how-we-gave-up-on-facts-and-ended-up-with-trump.
  35. Krastev, Ivan, and Stephen Holmes. 2019. The Light that Failed: A Reckoning. London: Penguin Books.
  36. Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Pouvoirs de l’horreur: Essai sur l’abjection. Paris: Le Seuil.
  37. Krzyżanowska, Natalia, and Michał Krzyżanowski. 2018. “‘Crisis’ and Migration in Poland: Discursive Shifts, Anti-Pluralism and the Politicisation of Exclusion.” Sociology 52(3): 612–618. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038518757952.
  38. Laclau, Ernesto. 2005. On Populist Reason. New York: Verso.
  39. Lakoff, George. 2004. Don’t Think of An Elephant! Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. Carlton North: Scribe Publications.
  40. Leder, Andrzej. 2014. Prześniona rewolucja. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Krytyki Politycznej.
  41. Mair, Peter. 2013. Ruling the Void: The Hollowing-out of Western Democracy. London: Verso.
  42. Marx, Karl, and Frederick Engels. 2001. The German Ideology Part One, with Selections from Parts Two and Three, together with Marx's “Introduction to a Critique of Political Economy”, edited by C.J. Arthur. New York: International Publishers.
  43. Matyja, Rafał. 2018. Wyjście awaryjne: O zmianie wyobraźni politycznej. Kraków: Karakter.
  44. Moffitt, Benjamin. 2019. “Populism versus Technocracy: Performance, Passions, and Aesthetics.” In Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Routledge.
  45. Mouffe, Chantal. 2018. For a Left Populism. London: Verso.
  46. Mouffe, Chantal. 2020. “The Controversy over Left-Wing Populism.” Le Monde Diplomatique, May. https://mondediplo.com/2020/05/14populism.
  47. Napiórkowski, Marcin. 2014. Władza wyobraźni. Warszawa: WUW.
  48. Napiórkowski, Marcin. 2019. Turbopatriotyzm. Wołowiec: Wydawnictwo Czarne.
  49. Oesch, Daniel. 2008. “Explaining Workers' Support for Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe: Evidence from Austria, Belgium, France, Norway, and Switzerland.” International Political Science Review 29(3): 349–373. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512107088390.
  50. Richardson, John E. 2007. Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  51. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.
  52. Schick, Irvin C. 1999. The Erotic Margin: Sexuality and Spatiality in Alteristic Discourse. New York: Verso.
  53. Scruton, Roger. 1993. “Oikophobia.” Journal of Education 175(2): 93–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/002205749317500207.
  54. Simonis, Yvan. 2010. “A Way of Comparing Levi-Strauss and Lacan.” Konturen 3(1): 149–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.5399/uo/konturen.3.1.1406.
  55. Snyder, Timothy. 2017. On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century. New York: The Duggan Books.
  56. Taggart, Paul. 2002. "Populism and the Pathology of Representative Politics." In Democracies and the Populist Challenge, edited by Yves Mény and Yves Surel. New York: Palgrave.
  57. Tambakaki, Paulina. 2019. “Populism and the Use of Tropes.” In Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Routledge.
  58. Thomlinson, Harvey. 2018. “After Burroughs and Beckett: Opening up Experimental Fiction Beyond Old White Men.” The Guardian, October 8.
  59. Tormey, Simon. 2019. “Passion, Excess, and Fear of the Mob: Populism as Ideology.” In Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Routledge.
  60. Vallespin, Fernando, and Máriam M. Bascuñán. 2019. “Populism and the Restructuring of the Public Sphere.” In Populism and Passions: Democratic Legitimacy after Austerity, edited by Paolo Cossarini and Fernando Vallespin. New York: Rutledge.
  61. Van Dijk, Teun A. 1993. Elite Discourse and Racism. Newbury Park: Sage.
  62. Weyland, Kurt. 1999. “Neoliberal Populism in Latin America and Eastern Europe.” Comparative Politics 31(4): 379–401.
  63. Wiles, Peter. 1969. “Syndrome, Not a Doctrine: Some Elementary Theses on populism.” In Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics, edited by Ghița Ionescu and Ernest Gellner. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  64. Wodak, Ruth. 2015. The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean. London: Sage.
  65. Wodak, Ruth, and Michał Krzyżanowski, eds. 2017. Journal of Language and Politics 16(4).