Professional Negligence, Mismanagement and Malpractice. Polish Companies in the Light of Supreme Audit Office Materials in the Years 1976-1980

Main Article Content

Krzysztof Lesiakowski

Abstract

The birth of the “Solidarity” Independent Self-governing Trade Union in 1980 was accompanied by a strong revisionist movement. The Polish society expected punishment for the previous administration, led by Edward Gierek, as it was their policy up to that point that resulted with enormous external debt and ubiquitous shortages of consumer goods. A lot was said about wastefulness, corruption and professional negligence, both in the state administration and in the managements of Polish companies. And these opinions were somehow justified, as evidenced by the results of audits performed by the Supreme Audit Office (Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, NIK) in the years 1976–1980. Information recorded in the audit documentation was in line with the social attitudes. Due to formal and legal conditions back then, NIK auditors could not inspect the most important companies, however they managed to prove that the scale of illegal actions committed by directors and managers was large and increased year by year.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Lesiakowski, K. (2017). Professional Negligence, Mismanagement and Malpractice. Polish Companies in the Light of Supreme Audit Office Materials in the Years 1976-1980. Studia Historiae Oeconomicae, 34, 149-166. https://doi.org/10.2478/sho-2016-0009
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Krzysztof Lesiakowski, University of Łódź, Łódź

Krzysztof Lesiakowski – PhD, Profesor, who works at the Polish and World History Faculty at the University of Łódź. His main research interests include the relationship between authorities and society in Poland after the Second World War, Polish People’s Republic, policy towards the young generation, Polish biographies in the 20th century. His publications include: Mieczysław Moczar „Mietek”. Biografia polityczna [Mieczysław Moczar, “Mietek”. A political biography] (Warszawa 1998); Jarocin w obiektywie bezpieki [Jarocin Festival through the lenses of the Security Services] (Warszawa 2004) (co-written with two authors); Powszechna Organizacja “Służba Polsce” 1948–1955 – powstanie, działalność, likwidacja”, [The Common Organization “Service for Poland” (1948–1955): origin, activity, liquidation] vol. 1–2 (Łódź 2008); Strajki robotnicze w Łodzi 1945–1976 [Workers’ strikes in Łódź 1945–1976] (Łódź 2008). He is also the author of numerous articles and the editor of several collected works, including Łódzki strajk studencki styczeń-luty 1981. Spojrzenie po latach” [Students’ strikes in Łódź January–February 1981. A perspective after the years] (Łódź - Warsaw 2014).

References

  1. Archiwum Akt Nowych (Archive of New Files, AAN) – Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Workers’ Party, PZPR), sign. 3852, 4008, 4014.
  2. Archiwum Najwyższej Izby Kontroli (Archive of Supreme Audit Office, ANIK) – Gabinet Prezesa (Chairman’s Office, GP), sign. 148/1, 148/2, 148/14, 294/1, 294/3, 294/4, 294/5, 1569/6, 1569/8, 1569/10, 1569/12, 1586/6, 1627/3, 1627/4, 1627/7, 2941.
  3. ANIK – GP, sign. 294/1, Information on the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1976, February 1977, f. 22.
  4. ANIK – GP, sign. 1627/7, Responsibility in the light of NIK audits, September 7, 1978, ff. 248-249.
  5. ANIK – GP, sign. 148/14, Information on problems resulting from the report of Prosecutor General and NIK cooperation with law enforcement agencies in 1979, March 1980, f. 25; ibidem, sign. 294/1, Information of the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1976, February 1977, f. 12.
  6. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4014, Report on NIK operation in the year 1980 [1981], ff. 133-134.
  7. ANIK – GP, sign. 1569/10, Information on the results of personal management audit, June 1978, f. 417.
  8. ANIK – GP, sign. 1569/12, Information of NIK council on the results of the audit on expanding and efficiency of operation of liquid fuels and oil distribution network in the country, October 4, 1978, f. 56.
  9. ANIK – GP, sign. 1627/4, Information on the results of the audit of accuracy of statistical reports, June 1978, f. 16.
  10. ANIK – GP, sign. 294/3, Information on the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1977, February 1978, f. 27.
  11. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4014, Report on NIK operation in the year 1980 [1981], f. 16.
  12. ANIK – GP, sign. 1627/3, A note to the President of the Council of Ministers regarding some conclusions from the audit, October 8, 1977, f. 367.
  13. ANIK – GP, sign. 148/14, Information on problems resulting from the report of Prosecutor General and cooperation between NIK and law enforcement agencies in 1979, March 1980, f. 27.
  14. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4014, Report on NIK operation in the year 1980 [1981], f. 147.
  15. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4014, Report on NIK operation in the year 1980 [1981], f. 149.
  16. ANIK – GP, sign. 1569/6, Information for NIK council on some important housing problems in the light of analyses and audits performed by NIK, May 1977, f. 228.
  17. ANIK – GP, sign. 1627/3, A note to the President of the Council of Ministers regarding some conclusions from the audit, October 8, 1977, f. 75.
  18. ANIK – GP, sign. 1627/3, Information on the condition of collective property protection against abuses, wastefulness and mismanagement, January 1977, ff. 331-332.
  19. ANIK – GP, sign. 294/3, Information on the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1977, February 1978, f. 31; ibidem, sign. 294/4, Report on complaints handled in 1978 r., February 1979, f. 26.
  20. ANIK – GP, sign. 294/5, Report on complaints and requests handled in the year 1979, [1980], f. 47.
  21. ANIK – GP, sign. 294/1, Information on the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1976, February 1977, f. 13, 16; ibidem, sign. 294/4, sign. 294/4, Report on complaints handled in 1978, February 1979, f. 17.
  22. ANIK – GP, sign. 294/5, Report on complaints and requests handled in the year 1979, [1980], f. 48-49.
  23. ANIK – GP, sign. 148/1, Decision no. 1/90 of the president of NIK, October 21, 1980, f. 14-14v; ibidem, sign. 148/2, Decision no. 11 of the president of NIK, June 30, 1981, f. 8.
  24. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4014, Report on NIK operation in the year 1980 [1981], f. 134.
  25. ANIK – GP, sign. 294/3, Information on the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1977, February 1978, f. 3, 16.
  26. ANIK – GP, sign. 148/14, Information on problems resulting from the report of Prosecutor General and cooperation between NIK and law enforcement agencies in 1979, March 1980, f. 28.
  27. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4008, A note to the president of NIK on the audit in the Radio and Television Committee [1980], f. 9; ANIK – GP, sign. 294/4, Report on complaints handled in 1978, February 1979, ff. 4-5; ibidem, sign. 294/3, Information on the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1977, February 1978, ff. 16-17, 23.
  28. ANIK – GP, sign. 1627/3, A note to the President of the Council of Ministers regarding some conclusions from the audit, October 8, 1977, ff. 60-61.
  29. ANIK – GP, sign. 2941, Information on the mode of examining and handling complaints and requests sent to NIK in 1976, February 1977, f. 12.
  30. ANIK – GP, sign. 148/14, Information on problems resulting from the report of Prosecutor General and cooperation between NIK and law enforcement agencies in 1979, March 1980, f. 27.
  31. ANIK – GP, sign. 1569/8, Minutes of the sitting of NIK council on March 14, 1979, f. 436; ibidem, Information on the results of the audit of the efficiency of foreign trade, February 1979, ff. 465-468.
  32. ANIK – GP, sign. 1569/8, Information on the results of the audit of the efficiency of foreign trade, February 1979, ff. 467-468.
  33. AAN – PZPR, sign. 3852, A report from NIK operation in the year 1977 [1978], ff. 44-45; ANIK – GP, sign. 1569/12, Information the conclusions from the audit on foreign business trips [1977], ff. 564, 568.
  34. ANIK – GP, sign. 148/14, Information on problems resulting from the report of Prosecutor General and cooperation between NIK and law enforcement agencies in 1979, March 1980, f. 27.
  35. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4014, Report on NIK operation in the year 1980 [1981], f. 18.
  36. ANIK – GP, sign., 1586/6, A bulletin from NIK president, January 6, 1977, f. 5.
  37. AAN – PZPR, sign. 4014, Report on NIK operation in the year 1980 [1981], f. 9.
  38. Gajdziński P. (2014), Gierek. Człowiek z węgla [Gierek. A man of coal], Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań.
  39. Górniok O. (1986), Przestępczość gospodarcza: wybrane przejawy i uwarunkowania [Financial crime: selected symptoms and conditions], Uniwersytet Śląski, Katowice.
  40. Jarosz D. (2010), Mieszkanie się należy... Studium z peerelowskich praktyk społecznych [A house is your right... A study of social practices in the Polish People’s Republic], Oficyna Wydawnicza Aspra-JR, Warsaw.
  41. Jarosz M. (2004), Władza, przywileje, korupcja [Power, privilege, corruption], Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.
  42. Karklins R. (2009), Wszystkiemu winien system. Korupcja w krajach postkomunistycznych [The system is to blame. Corruption in post-communist countries], Wydawnictwo Sic!, Warsaw.
  43. Komisja Tadeusza Grabskiego 1981 [Tadeusz Grabski Commission 1981] (2013), Jabłonowski M., Janowski W. (ed.), Faculty of Journalism and Political Science, University of Warsaw, Warsaw.
  44. Konaszyc A. (1978), Kontrola parlamentarna w PRL, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich [Parliamentary control in the Polish People’s Republic], Wrocław-Warszaw-Kraków.
  45. Korupcja polskiej „nomenklatury”. Z tajnych akt Najwyższej Izby Kontroli PRL [Corruption of the Polish “nomenklatura”. From the secret files of Supreme Audit Office] (1983), “Zeszyty Historyczne” (Paris), no. 64, p. 148-206.
  46. Kutyłowski A., Rzepliński A. (1981), Opinie na temat łapownictwa jako przestępstwa i zjawiska społecznego [Opinions on bribes as a crime and a social problem], [in:] “Opinia publiczna i środki masowego przekazu a ujemne zjawiska społeczne” [Public opinion and mass media and negative social phenomena], Wydawnictwo Prawnicze, Warszawa, p. 142-156.
  47. Lesiakowski K. (1998), Mieczysław Moczar „Mietek”. Biografia polityczna [Mieczysław Moczar, “Mietek”. A political biography], Oficyna Wydawnicza „Rytm”, Warszawa.
  48. Mac J. S. (1981), Duże pranie [Big laundry], “Prawo i Życie”, no. 28, p. 5.
  49. Madej K. (2003), Siermiężna i dolarowa – korupcja w PRL w latach 1956-1980 [Poverty and dollars – corruption in socialist Poland in the years 1956-1980], [in:] Stola D., Zaremba M. (ed.), “PRL. Trwanie i zmiana” [Socialist Poland. Stagnation and change], Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Przedsiębiorczości i Zarzadzania im. Leona Koźmińskiego, Warsaw, p. 249-280.
  50. Rolicki J. (1990), Edward Gierek. Replika (wywiad rzeka) [Edward Gierek. A replica (an interview)], Polska Oficyna Wydawnicza “BGW”, Warsaw.
  51. Rurarz Z. (1990), Byłem doradcą Gierka [I used to be Gierek’s advisor], Andy Grafik, Warszawa.
  52. Seidler B. (1988), Ludzie i paragrafy [People and law], Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków.
  53. Sierpowska I. (2003), Funkcje kontroli państwowej. Studium prawno-porównawcze [Function of state controls. A legal and comparative study], Kolonia Limited, Wrocław.
  54. Smith H., Smolar A., Wosleński M. (1983), Władza i przywileje [Power and privileges], Oficyna WE, Warsaw.
  55. Sylwestrzak A. (2006), Najwyższa Izba Kontroli. Studium prawnoustrojowe [Supreme Audit Office. Systemic and legal study], Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, Warszawa.