Main Article Content
2012 revolutions in the Arab world sparked strong worldwide interest, mainly due to the easiness with which long-reigning dictators were renouncing their power. However, the shift of power did not make those who led to overthrowing the tyrants any better off. As the price of freedom seems incalculable, it is difficult to assess unequivocally all the costs of the so-called Arab revolutions: the number of people killed and displaced, changes to the size of economies and the standard of living, the impact on both the nearest neighbours and the situation in the region. The purpose of this article is to present the international implications of the Arab Spring. Detailed analysis will focus on the regional context, because the most important changes took place in the the nearest neighbours of these countries. Firstly, the Arab Spring toppled some myths about the changes in the region. Secondly, a change of government that took place in the Libya and Egypt, scared the other leaders in the region. As a result, the rulers undertook measures aimed at reducing social tensions (budget transfers for the poorest). Thirdly, the intervention in Libya showed that the West can intervene militarily in its nearest surroundings, when its interests are threatened.
Download data is not yet available.
Tarnawski, M. (2013). Regional Implications of the Arab Spring. Przegląd Strategiczny, (1), 125-138. https://doi.org/10.14746/ps.2013.1.8
Teksty opublikowane na łamach czasopisma "Przegląd Strategiczny" i udostępniane w formacie PDF objęte są licencją CC BY 4.0 (Creative Commons - Uznanie autorstwa). Kopiowanie i rozpowszechnianie dozwolone jest pod warunkiem uznania autorstwa.
- Abouzeid R., Syria’s Secular and Islamist Rebels: Who Are the Saudis and the Qataris Arming?, “Time”, 18.09.2012.
- Arab economies. Throwing money at the street, “The Economist”, 10.03.2011.
- Balfour R., Changes and Continuities in EU-Mediterranean Relations after the Arab Spring, in: An Arab Springboard for EU Foreign Policy, eds. S. Biscop, R. Balfour, M. Emerson, Brussels, January 2012.
- Black I., Qa-tar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels, “The Guardian”, 26.10.2011.
- Bronner E., Slackman M., Saudi Troops Enter Bahrain to Help Put Down Unrest, “The New York Times”, 14.03.2011.
- Bubnova N., Salem P., Arab Spring: View From Within the Region, “Voenno-Promyshlennyi Kurier”, 1.06.2011.
- Carnegie J. M., Why China and Russia rebuffed the West on Syria, BBC, 5.10.2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/world-middle-east-15180732 (24.11.2012).
- Daalder I., Stavridis J., NATO’s Success in Libya, “The International Herald Tribune”, 31.10.2011.
- Davidson Ch., Fear and Loathing in the Emirates, 18 September 2012.
- Drine I., Youth Unemployment in the Arab World: What Do We Know? What is the Way For-ward?, June 2012, http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/newsletter/articles-2012/en_GB/06-07--2012-Drine/ (24.08.2012).
- Eisenstadt M., Iran’s Influence in Iraq, April 2011, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/ Documents/pubs/PolicyFocus111.pdf, Policy Focus#111 (17.09.2012).
- Fahim K., New Egyptian Cabinet Includes Many Holdovers, “The New York Times”, 2.08.2012.
- Friedman B., Battle for Bahrain: What One Uprising Meant for the Gulf States and Iran, “World Affairs”, March/April 2012.
- Gardner D., Citizens not serfs can save Saudi Arabia, “Financial Times”, 27.02.2011.
- Gladstone R., U.N. Votes to End Foreign Intervention in Libya, “New York Times”, 27.10.2011, p. A10.
- Gordon M., Iran’s Master of Iraq Chaos Still Vexes U.S., “New York Times”, 2.10.2012.
- Hendrix S., For Egypt’s new Islamist government, jobs is first priority, “The Washington Post”, 7 July 2012.
- Hoffman M., Jamal A., The Youth and the Arab Spring, “Middle East Law and Governance” 2012, No. 4.
- Ibish H., Was the Arab Spring Worth It?, “Foreign Policy”, July/August 2012.
- Joshi S., Six lessons from Libya, in: The Arab Spring. Implications for British Policy, Middle East Council, October 2011
- Kerr S., Gamble on Libya pays off for Qatar, “Financial Times”, 28.08.2011.
- Knickmeyer E., The Arab World’s Young Army, “Foreign Policy”, January 2011.
- Krause-Jackson F., Gaouette N., Qatari Leader Calls for Arab-Led Intervention in Syria, “Bloomberg Businessweek”, 25.09.2012.
- Libya: Gaddafi must step down, says ‘contact group’, BBC, 13.04.2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/world-middle-east-15180732 (24.11.2012).
- Mac Farquhar N., Shadid A., Russia and China Block U.N. Action on Crisis in Syria, “New York Times”, 4.02.2012.
- Mausher M., Arab Myths and Realities, The Project Syndicate, 8.03.2011, http://www.pro ject-syndicate.org/commentary/arab-myths-and-realities (24.08.2012).
- Muasher M., How to Achieve Real Reform in the Arab World, “Washington Post”, 2.02.2011.
- Murphy C., Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah promises $36 billion in benefits, “The Christian Sci-ence Monitor”, 23.02.2011.
- Norton-Taylor R., Rogers S., Hopkins N., Arab states play limited role in battle against Muammar Gaddafi’s regime, “The Guardian”, 22.05.2011.
- Odyssey Dawn, Unified Protector? Here’s what it means…, 28.03.2011, http://www.aco.nato.int/ page76501852.aspx (25.11.2012).
- Paal D., China: Mugged by Reality in Libya, Again, “Asia Pacific Brief”, 11.04.2011.
- Qatar to take part in military action over Libya, Reuters, 20.03.2011.
- Qatar’s air mission the first led by an Arab state, Al-Arabyia News, 26.03.2011.
- Rahimi B., Iran’s De-clining Influence in Iraq, “The Washington Quarterly”, Winter 2012.
- Resolution 1973 (2011) adopted by the Security Council at its 6498th meeting, on 17 March 2011, S/RES/1973 (2011), 17.03.2011.
- Roberts D., Behind Qatar’s Intervention In Libya, “Foreign Affairs”, September 2011.
- Russia accuses NATO of going beyond UN resolution on Libya, “Russia Today”, 17.04.2011.
- Saif I., Economic Reform in Arab Countries and Escaping from the Trap of the ‘Middle Income’ Bracket, “Al-Hayat”, 25.10.2011.
- Saudi Arabia: Free Political Activists. Secret Police Crackdown on Founders of First Political Party, 20 February 2011, Human Rights Watch, http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/02/19/saudi-ara-bia-free-political-activists (28.09.2012).
- Saudi soldiers sent into Bahrain, AlJazeera, 15.03.2011, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/03/2011314124928850647.html (19.11.2012).
- Security Council Fails to Adopt Draft Resolution on Syria as Russia and China veto text sup-porting Arab Leaude’s proposed peace plan, 4.02.2012, http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2012/ sc10536.doc.htm (15.10.2012).
- Sherlock R., Saudi millions and special forces expertise turn Syria’s rebels into a fighting force, “The Telegraph”, 21.09.2012.
- Statement by the NATO Secretary General on Libya, 20 October 2011, http://www.nato.int/cps/ en/natolive/news_79742.htm (25.11.2012); and NATO Secretary General statement on end of Libya mission, 28 October 2011, http://www.nato.in /cps/en/natolive/news_80052.htm (25.11.2012).
- Syria crisis: Qatar calls for Arabs to send in troops, BBC, 14.01.2012.
- Tunesian Islamist in power. Doing well on parole, “The Economist”, 7.04.2012
- Ulrichsen K., Small States with a Big Role: Qatar and the United Arab Emirates in the Wake of the Arab Spring, October 2012, http://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/alsabah/SmallStateswithaBigRole.pdf (28.10.2012).
- Urlichsen K., Arab Solutions to Arab Problems?, The Changing Regional Role of the Gulf States, “Russia in Global Affairs”, 25.03.2012.
- World Economic Outlook Database, 16 July 2012, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/ 2012/01/weodata/index.aspx (24.08.2012).
- Worth R., Citing U.S. Fears, Arab Allies Limit Syrian Rebel Aid, “New York Times”, 6.10.2012.