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Zjawisko korupcji w demokracji skonsolidowanej. Przypadek Finlandii

Bartosz Czepil

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14746/pp.2017.22.2.7

Abstrakt


Zjawisko korupcji w stabilnych, zamożnych państwach demokratycznych określanych mianem demokracji skonsolidowanych było przez długi czas ignorowane przez badaczy. Jednak w ostatnim dziesięcioleciu XX wieku pojawiły się czynniki, które doprowadziły do instytucjonalizacji kwestii korupcji w dojrzałych demokracjach. Tę zmianę obserwujemy również w Finlandii, która według Indeksu Percepcji Korupcji publikowanym przez Transparency International jest postrzegana jako jedno z najmniej skorumpowanych państw świata. Jednak również w tym kraju możemy odnaleźć specyficzne formy korupcji. Celem artykułu jest charakterystyka tzw. sieci starych braci jako praktyk korupcyjnych charakterystycznych dla Finlandii. Autor stara się pokazać proces instytucjonalizacji kwestii sieci starych braci oraz problemy towarzyszące istnieniu tego zjawiska w fińskiej przestrzeni publicznej. Przede wszystkim wskazuje, że w Finlandii możemy obserwować przedefiniowanie nieformalnych, konsensualnych praktyk, które przez długi czas były akceptowanymi komponentami systemu politycznego, na praktyki o statusie korupcyjnym. Subtelność tych praktyk powoduje, że często trudno zaklasyfikować je jako jednoznaczne formy nadużywania władzy dla prywatnych korzyści.


Słowa kluczowe


korupcja; demokracja skonsolidowana; nieformalne sieci; państwa nordyckie

Pełny tekst:

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