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Relationalism in Political Theory and Research: The Challenge of Networked Politics and Policy-Making

Volker Schneider

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/pp.2015.20.4.14

Abstrakt


Teoria polityczna i badania w tej dziedzinie nie są zwykle pod każdym względem jednoznaczne, ale podlegają wpływom ukrytych teorii wyjściowych i światopoglądów naukowych, obejmujących na przykład założenia i paradygmaty. Przykładami są idealizm, materializm czy instytucjonalizm. Stosunkowo nowe podejście stanowi w tym względzie relacjonalizm. W ramach tej orientacji ontologicznej świat pojmowany jest wyłącznie w kategoriach relacji. Programy badawcze utrzymane w duchu relacjonizmu realizują tę ideę w praktyce za pomocą metod analizy sieci społecznych, które w coraz większym stopniu wchodzą w użycie także w naukach politycznych. Niniejszy artykuł prezentuje krytyczny ogląd kilku odmian tego nowego “izmu” i rodzajów myślenia sieciowego. Relacjonalizm jest ostatecznie postrzegany jako perspektywa pożyteczna, ale o ograniczonej mocy eksplanacyjnej. Dlatego powinien być zawsze stosowany w połączeniu z innymi podejściami i perspektywami.

Słowa kluczowe


relacje; sieci polityczne; analiza sieci społecznych; paradygmaty; teoria wyjściowa

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