Taktyczna broń nuklearna w Europie

Main Article Content

Rafał Kopeć

Abstrakt

Tactical nuclear weapons were quantitatively a dominant class o f nuclear weapons in the Cold War. However, currently, they stay on the margin of strategic thinking. The aim o f the article is to provide a reader with an insight into the issues related to tactical nuclear weapons in the European NATO countries (however, they are primarily American weapons). The article defines the term „tactical nuclear weapons” and provides an overview of these weapons. It stresses the reasons o f their development by the Western countries in the Cold War. The paper focuses on the nuclear sharing NATO program (but French non-strategic weapons are also mentioned) - its principles, current status and prospects, including controversies around the future o f tactical nuclear weapons in Europe.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Kopeć, R. (2016). Taktyczna broń nuklearna w Europie. Przegląd Strategiczny, (9), 75-90. https://doi.org/10.14746/ps.2016.1.6
Dział
Bezpieczeństwo w wymiarze globalnym, regionalnym i wewnętrznym

Bibliografia

  1. Anderson J. V., Larsen J. A., Holdorf P. M. (2013), Extended Deterrence and Allied Assurance: Key Concept and Current Challenges fo r U.S. Policy, Institute for National Security Studies, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado.
  2. Antony I., Janssen J. (2010), The Future of Nuclear Weapons in NATO, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Stockholm.
  3. Arbman G., Thornton Ch. (2003), Russia's Tactical Nuclear Weapons. Part I: Background and Policy Issues, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm.
  4. B-61 (2015), Global Security, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/systems/b61.htm (21.01.2016).
  5. Boniface P. (1998), French Nuclear Weapons Policy After the Cold War, Atlantic Council of the United States, Washington.
  6. Broad W. J., Sanger D. E. (2016), As U.S. Modernizes Nuclear Weapons, ‘Smaller’Leaves Some Uneasy, „The New York Times”, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/12/science/as-us-modernizes-nuclear-weapons-smaller-leaves-some-uneasy.html?_r=0 (2.02.2016).
  7. Browne D. (2011), Current NATO Nuclear Policy, w: Reducing the Role of Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Perspectives and Proposals on the NATO Policy Debate, (eds.) P. Ingram, O. Meier, Arms Control Association, British American Security Information Council, Washington-London.
  8. Butcher M., Butler N. (2010), NATO nuclear sharing: an anachronistic obstacle to nuclear disarmament and regional security, w: Beyond arms control: challenges and choices fo r nuclear disarmament, (ed.) R. Acheson, Reaching Critical Will, New York.
  9. CarpenterT. G. (2001), NATO’s Search for Relevance, w: NATO after Fifty Years, (eds.) S. V. Papacosma, S. Kay, M. R. Rubin, Scholarly Resources, Wilmington.
  10. Childs N. (2012), Europe, NATO’s Tactical Nuclear Conundrum, and Public Debate: Be Careful What You Wish For, w: Tactical Nuclear Weapon and NATO, (eds.) T. Nichols, D. Stuart, J. D. McCausland, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle.
  11. Czulda R. (2013), Taktyczna broń jądrowa w Europie, „Nowa Technika Wojskowa”, nr 6.
  12. Czulda R. (2014), NATO Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe - towards Modernisation or Withdrawal?, „Baltic Security & Defence Review”, Vol. 17, Issue 2.
  13. Faradori P. (2013), Debating the last remaining case of the forward deployment of nuclear weapons, w: Tactical Nuclear Weapons and Euro-Atlantic Security. The future of NATO, (ed.) P. Faradori, Abingdon.
  14. Ingram P., Kimball D. G., Meier O. (2011), Introduction, w: Reducing the Role of Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Perspectives and Proposals on the NATO Policy Debate, (eds.) P. Ingram, O. Meier, Arms Control Association, British American Security Information Council, Washington-London.
  15. Kamieński Ł. (2009), Technologia i wojna przyszłości. Wokół nuklearnej i informacyjnej rewolucji w sprawach wojskowych, Kraków.
  16. Kamp K.-H., Remkes R. C. N. (2011), Options for NATO Nuclear Sharing Arrangements, w: Reducing Nuclear Risks in Europe: A Framework fo r Action, (eds.) S. Andreasen, I. Williams, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington.
  17. KibarogluM. (2011), Turkey, NATO and Nuclear Sharing: Prospects After NATO’s Lisbon Summit, w: Reducing the Role of Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Perspectives and Proposals on the NATO Policy Debate, (eds.) P. Ingram, O. Meier, Arms Control Association, British American Security Information Council, Washington-London.
  18. Kopeć R. (2014), Strategie nuklearne w okresie pozimnowojennym, Kraków.
  19. KristensenH. (2013), US Navy Instruction Confirms Retirement of Nuclear Tomahawk Cruise Missile, Federation of American Scientists Strategic Security Blog, http://fas.org/blogs/security/2013/03/tomahawk (26.01.2016).
  20. Kristensen H. M., Mount A. (2014), Why NATO should eliminate its tactical nukes, despite Russian belligerence, „Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists”, http://thebulletin.org/why-nato-shouldeliminate-its-tactical-nukes-despite-russian-belligerence7415 (2.02.2016).
  21. Kuźniar R. (2005), Polityka i siła, Studia strategiczne - zarys problematyki, Wydawnictwo Scholar, Warszawa.
  22. Laird R. F. (2000), French Nuclear Forces in the 1980s and 1990s, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria.
  23. Meattig T. (2008), Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Germany: Time to Withdrawal?, Nuclear Threat Initiative, http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/tactical-nuclear-weapons-germany/ (3.02.2016).
  24. Medalia J. (2006), „Bunker Busters”: Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005-FY2007, Congressional Research Service, Washington.
  25. Millot M. D. (1997), Facing the Emerging Reality o f Regional Nuclear Adversaries, w: American Defense Policy, (eds.) P. L. Hays, B. J. Vallance, A. R. Van Tassel, Baltimore.
  26. Murdock C. A., Yeates J. (2007), Exploring the Nuclear Posture Implications of Extended Deterrence and Assurance, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington.
  27. Narang V. (2014), Nuclear Strategy in the Modern Era. Regional Powers and International Conflict, Princeton.
  28. Neuneck G. (2012), European and German Perspectives, w: Tactical Nuclear Weapon and NATO, (eds.) T. Nichols, D. Stuart, J. D. McCausland, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle.
  29. Nichols T., Stuart D., McCausland J. D. (2012), Summing up and issues for the future, w: Tactical Nuclear Weapon and NATO, (eds.) T. Nichols, D. Stuart, J. D. McCausland, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle.
  30. Norris R. S., ArkinW. M. (2000), French and British Nuclear Forces, „Bulletin of Atomic Scientists”, No. 56/5.
  31. Pifer S. (2011), The United States, NATO’s Strategic Concept, and Nuclear Issues, w: Reducing the Role ofTactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Perspectives and Proposals on the NATO Policy Debate, (eds.) P. Ingram, O. Meier, Arms Control Association, British American Security Information Council, Washington-London.
  32. Rühl L. (2005), The future of US tactical nuclear weapons in Germany and NATO and implications of a draw-down for other nonproliferation issues, contribution to the Aspen Berlin conference on Germany and Nuclear Nonproliferation, http://www.npolicy.org/article_file/The_future_of_US_tactical_nuclear_weapons_in_Germany_and_NATO_and_implications_of_a_drawdown_for_other_nonproliferation_issues.pdf (2.02.2016).
  33. Schulte P. (2012), Tactical Nuclear Weapons in NATO and Beyond: A Historical and Thematic Examination, w: Tactical Nuclear Weapon and NATO, (eds.) T. Nichols, D. Stuart, J. D. McCausland, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle.
  34. Sechser T. S. (2015), Sharing the Bomb: Nonproliferation, Deterrence, and Foreign Nuclear Deployments, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
  35. Stein A. (2012), Turkey and Tactical Nuclear Weapons: A Political Love Affair, EDAM Centre for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies, Istanbul.
  36. Tannenwald N. (2007), The Nuclear Taboo, The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapon since 1945, Cambridge.
  37. Tertrais B. (2004), ’Destruction Assurée’: The Origins and development of French Nuclear Strategy, 1945-1981, w: Getting MAD: Nuclear Mutual Assured Destruction, its Origins and Practice, (ed.) H. D. Sokolsky, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle.
  38. Tertrais B. (2007), A Comparison between US, UK and French Nuclear Policy, Centre d’Etudes de Relations Internationales, Paris.
  39. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Atomic Energy Agency, Art. VI.
  40. Weitz R. (2012), The Historical Context, w: Tactical Nuclear Weapon and NATO, (eds.) T. Nichols, D. Stuart, J. D. McCausland, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle.
  41. Wilson L. (2014), Between the Lines: TheB61 Life Extension Program, w: Nuclear Scholar Initiative: A Collection of Papers from the 2013 Nuclear Scholar Initiative, (ed.) S. Weiner, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington.
  42. Woolf A. F. (2015), Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapon, Congressional Research Service, Washington.