Kolegialna głowa państwa we współczesnych systemach politycznych

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Marcin Łukaszewski


Avast majority of democratic constitutions provide for a unipersonal head of state in modern political systems. There are only four democratic states with a collegial head of state in their political system. In the opinion of the article’s author, this form of the principal state organ is determined by historical factors and/or the federal character of the state. The author also points to the fact that this form of state leadership is present in the political systems of autocratic states.


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Łukaszewski, M. (2011). Kolegialna głowa państwa we współczesnych systemach politycznych. Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne, (1), 133-156. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssp.2011.1.09