Zmiana granic w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej? Wzorce migracji i reakcje polityczne

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Christiane Barnickel
Timm Beichelt

Abstrakt

Celem tekstu jest przedstawienie zagadnienia migracji do Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej oraz polityki migracyjnej, prowadzonej przez nowe państwa członkowskie UE, z wykorzystaniem pojęcia pogranicza. Koncentracja na granicach i obszarach, jakie te granice dzielą pozwala uwzględnić nową perspektywę naukową, znajdującą wyraz w nowych terminach, takich jak „topograficzny” i „przestrzenny.” Tekst ma zatem podwójny cel. Z jednej strony usiłuje prześledzić i wyjaśnić ruchy migracyjne powodujące napływ oraz odpływ imigrantów z nowych państw członkowskich UE oraz reakcje tychże państw. Z drugiej stawia pytanie, co te ruchy ludnościowe mówią nam na temat Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej jako pogranicza w nowym, ewoluującym systemie politycznym UE. Aby zrealizować te dwa cele zastosowano metaforyczne pojęcie pogranicza. Nie posiada ono ustalonej definicji. Stosuje się je raczej dla określenia różnych zjawisk związanych z pograniczem, takich jak otwartość bądź zamknięcie granic, intensywność wzajemnych relacji pomiędzy obiema stronami granicy, różnorodny rozwój po obu stronach, polityczne i społeczne podejście do granic w szerszej polityce dotyczącej granic. W związku z tym, zagadnienia pogranicza nie można po prostu sprowadzić do kwestii napięć pomiędzy granicami otwartymi a bezpiecznymi.

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Barnickel, C., & Beichelt, T. (2011). Zmiana granic w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej? Wzorce migracji i reakcje polityczne. Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne, (4), 5-42. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssp.2011.4.01
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