Pressto.

Page Header

The role of input and output tasks in grammar instruction: Theoretical, empirical and pedagogical considerations

Alessandro Benati

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2017.7.3.2

Abstract


In this paper, a review of the role of input, output and instruction in second language acquisition is provided. Several pedagogical interventions in grammar instruction (e.g., processing instruction, input enhancement, structured output and collaborative output tasks) are presented and their effectiveness reviewed. A final and overall evaluation is provided at the end of the paper.


Keywords


input; input enhancement; output; processing instruction; collaborative output tasks; structured output tasks

Full Text:

References


Angelovska, T., & Benati, A. (2013). Processing instruction and the age factor: Can adults and school-age native speakers of German process English simple past tense correctly? In A. Benati & J. Lee (Eds.), Individual differences and processing instruction (pp. 131-153). London: Equinox.

Benati, A. (2013). Key issues in second language teaching. London: Equinox.

Benati, A. (2016). Input manipulation, enhancement and processing: Theoretical views and empirical research. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6, 65-88.

Benati, A., & Lee, J. (2008). Grammar acquisition and processing instruction: Secondary and cumulative effects. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Benati, A., & Lee, J. (2010). Processing instruction and discourse. London: Continuum.

Benati, A., & Angelovska, T. (2015). The effects of processing instruction on the acquisition of English past simple tense: Age and cognitive tasks demands. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL), 53, 249-269.

Benati, A., & Lee, J. (Eds.). (2015). Processing instruction: New insights after twenty years of theory, research and application [Special issue]. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 53(2).

Benati, A., & Batziou, M. (2017). The relative effects of isolated and combined structured input and structured output on the acquisition of the English causative

forms. IRAL. Advance online publication. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2016-0038

Benati, A., & Farhat, A. (2017). MSA gender agreement and motivation: A processing instruction study. Manuscript in preparation.

Carroll, S. (2001). Input and evidence: The raw material of second language acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Chomsky, N. (2005). Three factors in language design. Linguistic Enquiry, 36, 1-22.

Collins, L., & Ellis, N. (2009). Input and second language construction learning: Frequency, form, and function. Modern Language Journal, 93, 329-335.

Corder, P. S. (1967). The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5, 161-170.

DeKeyser, R. (2015). Skill acquisition theory. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (2nd ed.) (pp. 94-112). New York: Routledge.

Ellis, N. (2007). The associative-cognitive CREED. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (pp. 77-95). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ellis, N., & Wulff, S. (2015). Usage-based approaches to SLA. B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (2nd ed.) (pp. 75-93). New York: Routledge.

Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Farley, A. (2005). Structured input: Grammar instruction for the acquisition-oriented and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gass, S. (2003). Input and interaction. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 224-255). Oxford: Blackwell.

Gass, S., & Mackey, A. (2006). Input, interaction and output: An overview. In K. Bardovi-Harlig & Z. Dörnyei (Eds.), Themes in SLA research (pp. 3-17). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Gass, S., & Mackey, A. (2015). Input, interaction and output in second language acquisition. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams, J. (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (2nd ed.) (pp. 180-206). New York: Routledge.

Krashen, S. (1982). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.

Krashen, S. (2009). The comprehension hypothesis extended. In T. Piske & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), Input matters (pp. 81-94). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Lantolf, J., Thorne, S., & Poehner, E. (2015). Sociocultural theory and second language development. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams, J. (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (2nd ed.) (pp. 207-226). New York: Routledge.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2015). Research into practice: Grammar learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 48, 263-280.

Lee, J., & VanPatten, B. (2003). Making communicative language teaching happen. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lee, J., & Benati, A. (2007a). Delivering processing instruction in classrooms and in virtual contexts: Research and practice. London: Equinox.

Lee, J., & Benati, A. (2007b). Second language processing: An analysis of theory, problems and possible solutions. New York: Continuum.

Lee, J., & Benati, A. (2009). Research and perspectives on processing instruction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lee, J., & Benati, A. (Eds.). (2013). Individual differences and processing instruction. Sheffield: Equinox.

Lee, S.-K., & Huang, H. (2008). Visual input enhancement and grammar learning: A meta-analytic review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 307-331.

Leeser, M. (2017). A research synthesis and meta-analysis of Processing Instruction. Manuscript in preparation.

Long, M. (2007). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Montrul, S. (2009). Re-examining the fundamental difference hypothesis: What can early bilinguals tell us? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31, 225-57.

Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S. (2011). Teaching grammar in second language classrooms. New York: Routledge.

Nassaji, H. (2016). Research timeline: Form-focused instruction and second language acquisition. Language Teaching, 49, 35-62.

O’Grady, W., Lee, M., & Kwak, H. Y. (2009). Emergentism and second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bathis (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 69-88). Bingley: Emerald.

Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A., & Pawlak, M. (2012). Production-oriented and comprehension-based grammar teaching in the foreign language classroom. Heidelberg: Springer.

Pica, T. (1994). Research on negotiation: What does it reveal about second language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language Learning, 44, 493-527.

Pienemann, M. (1998). Language processing and L2 development. New York: Benjamins.

Pienemann, M., & Lenzing, A. (2015). Processability theory. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (2nd ed.) (pp. 159-179). New York: Routledge.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129-158.

Sharwood Smith, M. (1991). Speaking to many minds: On the relevance of different types of language information for the L2 learner. Second Language Research, 7, 118-132.

Sharwood Smith, M. (1993). Input enhancement in instructed SLA: Theoretical bases. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 165-179.

Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17, 38-62.

Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235-253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principles and practice in applied linguistics (pp. 125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

VanPatten, B. (1996). Input processing and grammar instruction: Theory and research, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

VanPatten, B. (2003). From input to output: A teacher’s guide to second language acquisition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

VanPatten, B. (Ed.). (2004). Processing instruction: Theory, research, and commentary. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

VanPatten, B. (2015a). Input processing in adult SLA. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (2nd ed.) (pp. 113-135). New York: Routledge.

VanPatten, B. (2015b). Foundations of processing. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 53, 91-109.

VanPatten, B., & Sanz, C. (1995). From input to output: Processing instruction and communicative tasks. In F. R. Eckman, D. Highland, P. W. Lee, J. Mileham, & R. R. Weber (Eds.), Second language acquisition theory and pedagogy (pp. 169-185). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

VanPatten, B., & Jegerski, J. (2010). Research in second language processing and parsing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

VanPatten, B., & Rothman, J. (2014). Against rules. In A. Benati, C. Laval, & M. Arche (Eds.), The grammar dimension in instructed second language learning (pp. 15-35). London: Bloomsbury.

Wajnryb, R. (1990). Grammar dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

White, L. (2003). Second language acquisition and universal grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

White, L. (2015). Linguistic theory, universal grammar, and second language acquisition. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams, J. (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (2nd ed.) (pp.34-53). New York: Routledge.

Whong, M., Gil, K., & H. Marsden (Eds.). (2013). Universal grammar and the language classroom. Heidelberg: Springer.

Wong, W. (2004). Processing instruction in French: The roles of explicit information and structured input. In B. VanPatten (Ed.), Processing instruction: Theory, research, and commentary (pp. 187-205). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wong, W. (2005). Input enhancement: From theory and research to the classroom. New York: McGraw-Hill

PRESSto2AMUR - export

Statystyki

Abstract - 156 PDF - 148

Altmetric

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.