The Cinematic Art (History) and Mieke Bal’s Thinking in Film

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Filip Lipiński


The article focuses on Mieke Bal’s theoretical considerations of art in terms of film and movement in general. This cinematic frame offers her a conceptual framework for “thinking in film”, a way to rethink not only diverse forms of art, moving and still images, but also, as I argue, methodological models for art history. The text begins with a general outline of the tensions and relations between art history and film/film studies, with a discussion of several cases of the theoretical application of film in the field of art history. Bal’s case, the main subject of the article, is perhaps the most consistent and theoretically advanced attempt at reconceptualizing diverse aspects of art in interdisciplinary, cinematic terms within a larger phenomenon which might called a theoretical dimension of the “cinematic turn”. While I acknowledge the importance and complementary nature of Bal’s artistic practice as a video artist with her theoretical work, due to the limited space of this article, the focus of my text is on her writing. I closely trace and discuss a variety of Bal’s texts, predominantly written over the last 20 years, in which she theorizes and analyzes works in which movement is either explicit, such as video or video installation or implicit, such as painting. In her crucial, relevant books, Thinking in Film. The Politics of Video Installation According to Eija-Liisa Athila (2013) or Emma&Edvard Looking Sideways: Loneliness and the Cinematic, Bal, referring to a number of scholars and thinkers, but most prominently and consistently to Henri Bergson, points to four kinds of movement: literal or represented movement of/in the image, movement related to perception, affective movement and, finally, its political dimension, all of which are discussed in this article. Video installation is an art form which for Bal becomes the best concretization (a contact space) of all of the above aspects of movement, activating “thinking in film”. This involves new reformulations of spatial and temporal dimensions of art, with such concepts as heterochrony and timespace. Moreover, with reference to video art, Bal coined the notion of  “migratory aesthetics”, where migration not only literally concerns migrants and immigration but offers a platform to reflect on and renegotiate the issues of movement, stagnation, the everyday and their political dimensions. Last but not least, film, according to Bal, also offers a useful framework for analyzing the experience of art exhibitions. In discussing Bal’s work, I argue that her  “cinematic”, conceptual travels in art offer a radical opening of a number of art historical categories and procedures, and I propose to regard her project of  “thinking in film” as indicative of a larger changes across disciplines already visible in her earlier work in the 1990s, which involve the productive redefinition of historical and temporal experience, mobilization of perception and the body, relational mode of thinking and vision, affective dimension of experiencing art and the acknowledgment of agency both on the part of the viewer and the artwork.


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Lipiński, F. (2020). The Cinematic Art (History) and Mieke Bal’s Thinking in Film. Artium Quaestiones, (31), 5-37.
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Filip Lipiński, Adam Mickiewicz University

Art historian and Americanist, assistant professor (PhD) at the Department of Art History, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. His academic interests concern American art, theory and methodology of art history, current research focuses the relationship between art history, film and film studies. He is a recipient of several research grants in the USA and Europe: Fulbright Fellowship at City University of New York (2007-8), Terra Travel Research Grant (2013), JFK Institut Research Grant, Berlin (2019) Kościuszko Foundation Research Grant at University of Southern California/Getty Research Center, Los Angeles (2019). Author of the book Hopper wirtualny. Obrazy w pamiętającym spojrzeniu (2013) and numerous academic articles and book chapters on modern and contemporary art and art theory in journals such as Oxford Art Journal, Kwartalnik Filmowy, Artium Quaestiones, RIHA Journal. Translator of academic texts, deputy editor-in-chief of Artium Quaestiones yearly.


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