Outdoor fitness activity under COVID-19 restrictions. Wearable devices, images, and posts as sources of information on users
Miasta w obliczu zmiany
PDF (English)

Słowa kluczowe

wearable devices
outdoor activities
mobile-tracking fitness apps
CO VID-19 and outdoor activity

Jak cytować

Isański, J., Kupiński, S., Leszkowicz, M., Andrzejewski, W., & Bykowski, A. (2023). Outdoor fitness activity under COVID-19 restrictions. Wearable devices, images, and posts as sources of information on users. Człowiek I Społeczeństwo, 55, 115–139. https://doi.org/10.14746/cis.2023.55.7


Our study aimed to present amateur sports models during the CO VID-19 restrictions on outdoor activities. We used mixed research methods: the questionnaire research data and information available through wearable devices. We investigate physical activity phenomena based on questionnaire results and existing data from a popular social networking site. Firstly, we asked respondents about their training types, rhythm, and preferences in using new technologies (wearables devices and social networks to upload and share results) in individual physical activity practices. Secondly, we also used a collection of over 11 thousand photos of 3138 users, with metadata downloaded from Instagram to compare declarations and content. The obtained data were processed using machine learning and Python software. Analyzing the results, we showed a change in the intensity of practicing three selected types of activity. We also analyzed the data set (photos, tags, and metadata) from a social network. The conclusions show the potential of triangulation of methods and data to describe the amateur physical activity and the change of these practices during CO VID-19 limitations in indoor and outdoor sports.

PDF (English)


Ananthakrishnan, U., Jiaoping, Ch., Anjana, S. (2020). No Pain, No Gain: Examining the Digital Resilience of the Fitness Sector During the COVID-19 Pandemic. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/347450579_No_Pain_No_Gain_Examining_the_Digital_Resilience_of_the_Fitness_Sector_During_the_COVID-19_Pandemic. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3740143

Andrews, G.J. (2016). Extending the Field of Play: Revealing the Dynamics Between Sports, Health and Place. Social Sciences & Medicine, 168, 1–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.08.045

Angosto, S., García-Fernández, J., Valentine, I., Grimaldi-Puyana, M. (2020). The Intention to Use Fitness and Physical Activity Apps: A Systematic Review. Sustainability, 12(16), 6641. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166641

Banskota, S., Healy, M., Goldberg, E.M. (2020). 15 Smartphone Apps for Older Adults to Use While in Isolation During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 21(3): 514–525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2020.4.47372

Barkley, J.E., Lepp, A., Santo, A., Glickman, E., Dowdell, B. (2020). The Relationship Between Fitness App Use and Physical Activity Behavior Is Mediated by Exercise Identity. Computers in Human Behavior, 108, 106313. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106313

Bhargava, J., Nabi, J. (2020). The Opportunities, Challenges and Obligations of Fitness Data. Procedia Computer Science, 167, 1354–1362. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.03.346

Boy, J.D., Uitermark, J. (2016). How to Study the City on Instagram. PLoS ONE, 11(6):e0158161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158161

Chia-Chen, Ch., Kuo-Lun, H., Wan-Chen, L. (2020). Exploring the Determinants of Usage Continuance Willingness for Location-based Apps: A Case Study of Bicycle-based Exercise Apps. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 55, 102097. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102097

Dickinson J. E., Filimonau V., Cherrett T., Davies N., Hibbert J. F., Norgate S., Speed Ch. (2018). Lift-share using mobile apps in tourism: The role of trust, sense of community and existing lift-share practices. In: Transportation Research Part D 61(2018), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.11.004

Ehrle, V., Villi, M. (2020). ‘I shared the joy’: Sport-related Social Support and Communality on Instagram. Visual Studies, 35(2–3), 260–272, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1472586X.2020.1790304

García-Fernández, J., Gálvez-Ruiz, P., Grimaldi-Puyana, M., Angosto, S., Fernández-Gavira, J., Rocío Bohórquez, M. (2020). The Promotion of Physical Activity from Digital Services: Influence of E-Lifestyles on Intention to Use Fitness Apps. International

Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 6839.

Gültzow, T., Guidry, J.P.D., Schneider, F., Hoving, C. (2020). Male Body Image Portrayals on Instagram. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(5), 281–289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2019.0368

Gupta, R., Dhamija, R. (2020). COVID-19: Social Distancing or Social Isolation? BMJ, 369. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2399

Honary, M., Bell, B.T., Clinch, S., Wild, S.E., McNaney, R. (2019). Understanding the Role of Healthy Eating and Fitness Mobile Apps in the Formation of Maladaptive Eating and Exercise Behaviors in Young People. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 7(6): e14239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/14239

Huang, G., Ren, Y. (2020). Linking Technological Functions of Fitness Mobile Apps with Continuous Usage Among Chinese Users: Moderating Role of Exercise Self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 103, 151–160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.09.013

Hwang, T.J., Rabheru, K., Peisah, C., Reichman, W., Ikeda, M. (2020). Loneliness and Social Isolation During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Psychogeriatrics, 32(10): Special Issue: COVID-19 and Psychogeriatrics, 1217–1220. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220000988

Jomin, G., Takura, B. (2020). The Role of Mobile Health Application on Self-quantification. IJARW, 1(10). www.ijarw.com.

Lindholst, A.Ch., Konijnendijk Bosch, C. van den, Kjoeller, Ch.Ph., Sullivan, S., Kristoffersson, A., Fors, H., Nilsson, K. (2016). Urban Green Space Qualities Reframed Toward a Public Value Management Paradigm: The Case of Nordic Green Space Award. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 17, 166–176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.04.007

Liu, Y., Avello, M. (2020). Status of the Research in Fitness Apps: A Bibliometric Analysis. In: Telematics and Informatics, available online 23 September 2020, 101506. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/telematics-and-informatics. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2020.101506

Milne-Ives, M., Ching, L., Cock, C. De, Velthoven, M.H. Van, Meinert, E. (2020). Mobile Apps for Health Behavior Change in Physical Activity, Diet, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Mental Health: Systematic Review. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 8(3), e17046. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/17046

Molina, M.D., Sundar, S.S. (2020). Can Mobile Apps Motivate Fitness Tracking? A Study of Technological Affordances and Workout Behaviors. Health Communication, 35(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2018.1536961

Murillo-Zegarra, M., Ruiz-Mafe, C., Sanz-Blas, S. (2020). The Effects of Mobile Advertising Alerts and Perceived Value on Continuance Intention for Branded Mobile Apps. Sustainability, 12(17), 6753. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176753

Rocío, M. (2020). The Promotion of Physical Activity from Digital Services: Influence of E-Lifestyles on Intention to Use Fitness Apps. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 6839. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186839

Qviström, M. (2016). The Nature of Running: On Embedded Landscape Ideals in Leisure Planning. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 17, 202–210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.04.012

Qviström, M. (2017). Competing geographies of recreational running: The case of the “jogging wave” in Sweden in the late 1970s. In: Health and Place 46 (2017) 351-357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.12.002

Stebbins, R. (2019). Sport and Nature: A Comment on Their Relationship. Annals of Leisure Research, 24(2), 249–254. STRAVA 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/11745398.2019.1672569

Sycinska-Dziarnowska, M., Stępień, P., Janiszewska-Olszowska, J., Grocholewicz, K., Jedlinski, M., Grassi, R., Mazur, M. (2020). Analysis of Instagram ® Posts Referring to Cleft Lip. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207404

Tham, A., Kim, L., Victory, S., Chen, Y., Zheng, K., Eikey, E. (2020). A Content Analysis of Popular Diet, Fitness and Weight Self-Tracking Mobile Apps on Google Play. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/106581.

Tiggemann, M., Zaccardo, M. (2016). Strong Is the New Skinny: A Content Analysis of #fitspiration Images on Instagram. Journal of Health Psychology, 23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105316639436

Tsung-Yi, L., Maire, M., Belongie, S., Bourdev, L., Girshick, R., Hays, J., Perona, P., Ramanan, C.D., Zitnick, L., Dollar, P. (2015). Microsoft COCO: Common Objects in Context. arXiv.

Warren, P., Suay, M.Ö., Greene, A.K., Teeling, L., Bansard, J.S., Joceli Omena, J., Teixeira Rabello, E. (2020). Visual Cross-Platform Analysis: Digital Methods to Research Social Media Images. Information, Communication & Society, 23(2), 161–180, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1486871

Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Zilong, L. (2020). Run for the Group: The Impacts of Offline Teambuilding, Social Comparison and Competitive Climate on Group Physical Activity –Evidence from Mobile Fitness Apps. Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. https://worksmile.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Raport_Worksmike_2020.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.24251/HICSS.2020.734