Conflicting representations on Armenian genocide: exploring the relational future through self-inquiring technique

Main Article Content

Cătălin Mamali
Mircea Kivu
Jan Kutnik

Abstrakt

Major lethal conflicts (war crimes, genocides) between large social actors include many times opposing social representations, narratives and practical approaches to the events worked out by those placed on the aggressor or aggressed, perpetrators or victims’ side. War crimes and genocides seem to be historically associated, mainly in the case of dictatorial regimes, with system-atic repression not only of the information about such events but also of the interrogative potential of common people about the events. The study proposes that such conflicting representations cannot be approached only by questions pre-established by the researchers to which the participants are supposed to answer. Methodologically and theoretically it is justified to explore the assumptions and the questions that can be triggered by the pres­entation of conflicts to the participants who are supposed to look to the same conflict from both sides. Besides the use of national representative samples and of convenience samples before and after the 100 years commemoration of the 1915 Armenian geno­cide the study presents the findings based on self-inquiry tech­nique applied at three levels of social complexity: (a) societal level, with questions directed to the general universe of discourse implied by the 1915 events; (b) at interpersonal level with ques­tions directed to actors with leading roles on both sides; (c) at the individual level stimulating questions about 1915 genocide that are explicitly self-directed. We suggest, based on the find­ings, that the expression of the questioning potential on trag­ic events is useful for the relational future of the sides involved in the conflicts.

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Biogramy autorów

Cătălin Mamali, Department of Social Sciences – NICC, USA

Cătălin Mamali - PhD University of Bucharest 1976, Fulbright scholar (1990-1991) University of Iowa. Areas of research: motivation (work motivation, crucial experiences and motivation), motivation and values (motivational balance and co-development), interpersonal cognitive behavior (interknowledge), dynamics of questioning and answering potential across life-span and cultures, iconic social metaphors (social autograph), civil disobedience and political genealogies, the use of  epistolary interaction for reconstructing personal relationships across life-span, participatory methodologies (self-inquiry, symmetrical situations). Published research in scientific journals on motivation, crucial experiences, types of scientists and he is also an author of a few books.  C. Mamali has  participated to a series of cross cultural researches such as those lead by:  Otto Klineberg (reciprocal images between parents and children), Mircea Maliţa (No limits to learning, Report to the Club of  Rome), Carlos Malmann (human needs  and development), Solom Marcus (psycholinguisitics), Shalom Schwartz, Gian Vittorio Caprara and Michele Vecchione (values), Johan Galtung (goals, processes and indicators of development), John Harvey (traumatic experiences).. Mamali  taught to a few universities and colleges: Loras College, University of Wisconsin, University of Dubuque, Clarke University, Mount Mercy College, Northeast Iowa Community College, Kirkwood Community College and others in the USA.. In Romania he worked as senior scientific researcher to the Institute of Psychology of the Romanian Academy (January 1990-September 1990) and scientific researcher at the Research Center for Youth Problems (1968-1985) in Bucharest. Catalin Mamali has not been allowed to practice his profession  in Romania, and to travel between 1985-1989 due to his civil disobedience. He moved to the USA in October 1990. C. Mamali has been granted, together with his wife –Ioana Mamali (architect and painter), political asylum in 1997. He is member of APS, EASP and other scientific organizations.

C. Mamali has since a few years two projects (books) ready for publication: a) “Oracle-Sphinx Complex: Oedipus’s Quest for Truth and Love”; b) Manifestoes and Political Genealogies: Historical Experiments Rooted in the Manifesto of the Communist Party and in Civil Disobedience.

Mircea Kivu, Institutul de Marketing si Sondaje, Bucharest, România

Mircea Kivu - graduated Sociology at the University of Bucharest (1978) and has a MA in Demography and Social Sciences at Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales – Paris (1991). He is known as the author of several books and papers in sociology, with expertise in demography, public opinion polling, electoral sociology, ethnic relations.

His main activity as a sociologist is in the field of empirical research. Since 1992, he held top positions in several market and public opinion research institutions (Research Director and CEO at IMAS Marketing şi Sondaje, Vice-president for Research on Research at Ipsos Interactive Services, Operations Director at Mercury Research). Between 1997 and 2007 he was the ESOMAR national representative for Romania. He also held courses as a visiting lecturer at the University of Bucharest, Faculties of Sociology and of Journalism and Communication Science.

He is also involved in civil society activity as Vice-president of the board of Foundation for Civil Society Development (FDSC) and as a columnist in several general magazines and newspapers.

Jan Kutnik, Department of Psychology, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland

Jan Kutnik – PhD. John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin/Akademia »ArtesLiberales«: graduated in philosophy (Maria Curie-Sklodowska University), history (MCSU) and psychology (KUL). Is a member of the Warsaw Ghetto Museum`s Board of Trustees and the board of the “Well of Memory” Association, a non-government organization dedicated to the preservation of Jewish cultural heritage in the Lublin region and commemoration of the Holocaust. He is currently working on a research project concerning the psycho-social factors involved in the responses of visitors to historical museums.

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