Kwestia pierwotności funkcji estetycznej muzyki w świetle znalezisk archeologicznych

Main Article Content

Piotr Podlipniak


Bony flutes dated back to around 43,000 years old are the clearest examples of musical instruments ever found. There are also other archeological artifacts related to the possible musical activity of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis, which are the subject of numerous controversies. Bearing in mind that singing is the simplest form of musical activity that does not need any tools, the beginning of music must have been much older than the first musical instruments. Due to the fact that the sonic results of prehistorical hominins’ musical activity have not been preserved, the question of the artistic nature of hominins’ music requires the ethological knowledge as well as archeological findings. One of the widely discussed ethological hypotheses concerning human proclivity to behave artistically is the idea of artification, which has been proposed by Ellen Dissanayake. This idea suggests that the source of the human proclivity for art is the species-specific predisposition of Homo sapiens to transform the mundane non-artistic phenomena into art. However, while in the case of visual arts, the archeological discoveries of prehistorical paintings are by themselves the proof of such transformation in order to recognize the aesthetic function of our ancestors’ sound expressions the interpretation of the archeological discoveries of musical instruments in a broader context seems to be indispensable. The main aim of this article is to indicate that communication that has led to social consolidation has been the primordial function of music. Only together with the accelerating cultural evolution that occurred at the end of the middle Paleolithic period, musical activity was transformed from a simple communicative tool into an aesthetic phenomenon. It is proposed that this transformation could have been possible thanks to the appearance of the proclivity
to artification.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Podlipniak, P. (2019). Kwestia pierwotności funkcji estetycznej muzyki w świetle znalezisk archeologicznych. Folia Praehistorica Posnaniensia, 24, 191-206.
Biogram autora

Piotr Podlipniak, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Piotr Podlipniak Instytut Muzykologii, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza ul. Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 7, 61-614 Poznań


  1. Bannan, N. 2012 Harmony and its Role in Human Evolution. W: N. Bannan (red.), Music, Language, and Human Evolution (s. 288–340). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Behne, K.-E. 1997 The development of „Musikerleben” in adolescence: How and why young people listen to music. W: Perception and cognition of music (s. 143–159). Hove, England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis.
  3. Blacking, J. 1973 How musical is man? Seattle – London: University of Washington Press.
  4. Blake, E. C., Cross, I. 2008 Flint Tools as Portable Sound-Producing Objects in the Upper Palaeolithic Context: An Experimental Study. W: P. Cunningham, J. Heeb, R. Paardekooper (red.), Experiencing archaeology by experiment (s. 1–19). Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  5. Brown, S., Merker, B., Wallin, N. L. 2000 An introduction to evolutionary musicology. W: N. L.Wallin, B. Merker, S. Brown (red.), The Origins of Music (s. 3–24). Cambridge, London: The MIT Press.
  6. Cady, E. T., Harris, R. J., Knappenberger, J. B. 2008 Using music to cue autobiographical memories of different lifetime periods. Psychology of Music, 36(2), 157–177.
  7. Conard, N. J., Malina, M., Münzel, S. C. 2009 New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature, 460(7256), 737–740.
  8. Cook, N. 2000 Muzyka. Bardzo krótkie wprowadzenie. Warszawa: Prószyński i S-ka.
  9. D’Errico, F., Villa, P. 1997 Holes and grooves: the contribution of microscopy and taphonomy to the problem of art origins. Journal of Human Evolution, 33(1), 1–31.
  10. Dahlhaus, C., Eggebrecht, H. H. 1992 Co to jest muzyka? Tłum. D. Lachowska. Warszawa: PIW.
  11. Darwin, C. 1871 The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex (1. wyd.). London: John Murray.
  12. Deutsch, D., Henthorn, T., Lapidis, R. 2008 The speech-to-song illusion. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(4), 2471.
  13. Deutsch, D., Henthorn, T., Lapidis, R. 2011 Illusory transformation from speech to song. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(4), 2245–2252.
  14. Diedrich, C. G. 2015 „Neanderthal bone flutes”: Simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens. Royal Society Open Science, 2(4), 140022–140022.
  15. Dissanayake, E. 1995 Homo aestheticus: Where art comes from and why. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  16. Dissanayake, E. 2001 Antecedents of the temporal arts in early mother-infant interaction. W: N. L. Wallin,
  17. B. Merker, S. Brown (red.), The origins of music (s. 389–410). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  18. Dissanayake, E. 2017 Roots and Route of the Artification Hypothesis. Avant, 8(1), 15–32.
  19. Dunbar, R. I. M. 2012 On the Evolutionary Function of Song and Dance. W: N. Bannan (red.), Music, Language, and Human Evolution (s. 201–214). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  20. Dutton, D. 2009 The art instinct: Beauty, pleasure, & human evolution. New York: Bloomsbury Press.
  21. Fitch, W. T. 2006 The biology and evolution of music: A comparative perspective. Cognition, 100(1), 173–215.
  22. Fitch, W. T. 2013 Rhythmic cognition in humans and animals: Distinguishing meter and pulse perception. Frontiers in systems neuroscience, 7, 68.
  23. Fitch, W. T. 2015 Four principles of bio-musicology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 370(1664), 20140091.
  24. Gorzelańczyk, E. J., Podlipniak, P. 2011 Human singing as a form of bio-communication. Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems, 7(2), 79–83.
  25. Higham, T., Basell, L., Jacobi, R., Wood, R., Ramsey, C. B., Conard, N. J. 2012 Τesting models for the beginnings of the Aurignacian and the advent of figurative art and music: The radiocarbon chronology of Geißenklösterle. Journal of Human Evolution, 62(6), 664–676.
  26. Husain, G., Thompson, W. F., Schellenberg, E. G. 2002 Effects of Musical Tempo and Mode on Arousal, Mood, and Spatial Abilities. Music Perception, 20(2), 151–171.
  27. Jabłoński, M. 2010 Music as sign. Hakapaino: International Semiotics Institute.
  28. Jackendoff, R. 2008 Parallels and Nonpararelles between Language and Music. Music Perception, 26(3), 195–204.
  29. Jackendoff, R., Lerdahl, F. 2006 The capacity for music: what is it, and what’s special about it? Cognition, 100(1), 33–72.
  30. Kunej, D., Turk, I. 2000 New Perspectives on the Beginnings of Music: Archeological and Musicological Analysis of a Middle Paleolithic Bone „Flute”. W: N. L. Wallin, B. Merker, S. Brown (red.), The origins of music (s. 235–268). Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press.
  31. Laland, K. N. 2017 Darwin’s unfinished symphony: How culture made the human mind. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press.
  32. Launay, J., Tarr, B., Dunbar, R. I. M. 2016 Synchrony as an Adaptive Mechanism for Large-Scale Human Social Bonding. Ethology, 122(10), 779–789.
  33. Malinowski, B. 1987 Seks i stłumienie w społeczności dzikich oraz inne studia o płci, rodzinie i stosunkach pokrewieństwa. Przekł. J. Chałasiński. Warszawa: PWN.
  34. Malotki, E., Dissanayake, E. 2018 Early rock art of the American West: The geometric enigma. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  35. Merriam, A. P. 1964 The anthropology of music. Evanston – Illinois: Northwestern University Press.
  36. Meyer, J. 2015 Whistled languages: A worldwide inquiry on human whistled speech. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  37. Miller, G. F. 2000 Evolution of Human Music Through Sexual Selection. W: N. L. Wallin, B. Merker, S. Brown (red.), The Origins of Music (s. 329–360). Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  38. Mithen, S. J. 2006 The singing Neanderthals: The origins of music, language, mind, and body. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  39. Mithen, S. J. 2009 The music instinct: The evolutionary basis of musicality. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 3–12.
  40. Morley, I. 2006 Mousterian Musicianship? The Case of the Divje Babe I Bone. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 25(4), 317–333. 0092.2006.00264.x
  41. Morley, I. 2013 The prehistory of music: Human evolution, archaeology, and the origins of musicality. New York: Oxford University Press.
  42. North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J. 2000 Musical Preferences during and after Relaxation and Exercise. The American Journal of Psychology, 113(1), 43–67.
  43. Podlipniak, P. 2015a Instynkt tonalny. Koncepcja ewolucyjnego pochodzenia tonalności muzycznej. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
  44. Podlipniak, P. 2015b The origin of music and the Baldwin effect. W: J. Ginsborg, A. Lamont, S. Bramley (red.), Proceedings of Ninth Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (s. 671–677). Manchester: Royal Northern College of Music.
  45. Podlipniak, P. 2016 The evolutionary origin of pitch centre recognition. Psychology of Music, 44(3), 527–543.
  46. Prum, R. O. 2017 The evolution of beauty: How Darwin’s forgotten theory of mate choice shapes the animal world – and us. New York: Doubleday.
  47. Roederer, J. G. 1984 The Search for a Survival Value of Music. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1(3), 350–356.
  48. Roosth, S. 2018 Nineteen Hertz and Below: An Infrasonic History of the Twentieth Century. Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities, 5(3), 109–124.
  49. Rothenberg, D., Roeske, T. C., Voss, H. U., Naguib, M., Tchernichovski, O. 2014 Investigation of musicality in birdsong. Hearing Research, 308, 71–83.
  50. Schulkind, M. D., Hennis, L. K., Rubin, D. C. 1999 Music, emotion, and autobiographical memory: They’re playing your song. Memory & Cognition, 27(6), 948–955.
  51. Storr, A. 1992 Music and the mind. New York: Ballantine Books.
  52. Tarr, B., Launay, J., Dunbar, R. I. M. 2014 Music and social bonding: „Self-other” merging and neurohormonal mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(1096).
  53. Thoma, M. V., La Marca, R., Brönnimann, R., Finkel, L., Ehlert, U., Nater, U. M. 2013 The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e70156.
  54. Tinbergen, N. 1963 On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20(4), 410–433.
  55. Tuniz, C., Bernardini, F., Turk, I., Dimkaroski, L., Mancini, L., Dreossi, D. 2012 Did Neanderthals play music? X-Ray computed micro-tomography of the Divje Babe ‘flute’. Archaeometry, 54(3), 581–590.
  56. Turk, M., Turk, I., Dimkaroski, L., Blackwell, B. A. B., Horusitzky, F. Z., Otte, M., Bastiani, G., Korat, L. 2018 The Mousterian Musical Instrument from the Divje Babe I cave (Slovenia): Arguments on the Material Evidence for Neanderthal Musical Behaviour. L’Anthropologie, 122(4), 679–706.
  57. Weinstein, D., Launay, J., Pearce, E., Dunbar, R. I. M., Stewart, L. 2016 Singing and social bonding: Changes in connectivity and pain threshold as a function of group size. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37(2), 152–158.
  58. Zatorre, R. J., Baum, S. R. 2012 Musical melody and speech intonation: Singing a different tune. PLoS Biology, 10(7), Article ID e1001372.