Social Functioning of Women with Turner Syndrome
PDF (English)

Słowa kluczowe

social functioning
Turner syndrome

Jak cytować

Zadrożna, I. (2013). Social Functioning of Women with Turner Syndrome. Interdyscyplinarne Konteksty Pedagogiki Specjalnej, (1), 121–137.


The article concerns social functioning of women with Turner syndrome, focusing particularly on their family life (relations with parents, siblings, partner and children), and relations with others (friends, acquaintances, workmates and members of TS support organizations). The author also tries to find correlations between growth hormone treatment, sex hormones treatment, age of TS diagnosis, karyotype and social functioning of TS women. Turner Syndrome is a quite common (1 in every 2500 live female births) human genetic disorder which affects only females. Females with TS lack all or part of one of two sex X chromosomes. The phenotype of TS women includes short stature and ovarian failure (which usually causes infertility) specific anatomic abnormalities (such as a short neck with a webbed appearance, a low hairline at the back of the neck, and low-set ears) and characteristic neurocognitive profile, which usually does not include mental retardation. The treatment of TS girls includes growth hormone and sex hormones therapy. 71 women took part in the study (30 from Poland and 41 from other countries – USA, Australia and United Kingdom). Researches indicated that generally women with TS showed relatively good functioning in relations in family of origin (with parents and siblings) and in social environment (quite high professional activity, good functioning in relations with friends and acquaintances). Relations with parents, especially with mothers, were usually very close, but often revealed overprotective parents’ attitude towards TS women (even in their adult life). Relations with fathers were slightly worse, more often revealing lack of fathers’ acceptance towards TS women. Relations with siblings were rather close, but again revealed overprotective siblings’ attitude towards TS sisters. Researches also revealed relatively weak functioning of TS women in relations in family of procreation (with partner and children).
PDF (English)


APPELT K., WOJCIECHOWSKA J., Zadania i role społeczne w okresie dorosłości, Poznań 2002.

BANNINK E.M.N., SGA and Turner syndrome. The impact of growth hormone treatment on physical and mental well-being, Rotterdam 2006.

BONDY C.A. ET AL., Care of girls and women with Turner Syndrome: a guideline of the Turner Syndrome Study Group, J. Endocrin Metab, October 2007.

CAREL J.C., ECOSSE E., BASTIE-SIGEAC I., CABROL S., TAUBER M., LEGER J., NICOLINO M., BRAUNER R., COSTE J., CHAUSSAIN J.L., Quality of life determinants in young women with Turner’s Syndrome after growth hormone treatment: Results of the StaTur PopuSocial Functioning of Women with Turner Syndrome 135 lation-based Cohort Study, The Journal Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism April 2005, 90(4), 1992–1997.

CAREL J.C., ELIE C., ECOSSE E., TAUBER M., LÉGER J., CABROL S., NICOLINO M., BRAUNER R., CHAUSSAIN J.L., COSTE J., Self-Esteem and Social Adjustment in Young Women with Turner Syndrome – Influence of Pubertal Management and Sexuality: Population-Based Cohort Study, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 91, No. 8, 2972–2979.

CONWAY G.S., The impact and management of Turner’s syndrome in adult life, Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2002, Vol. 16, No. 2, 243–261.

CUNNINGHAM C.C., MORGAN P.A., MCGUCKEN R.B., Down’s syndrome: is dissatisfaction with disclosure of diagnosis inevitable?, Dev Med Child Neurol. 1984 Feb, 26(1), 33–39.

DAVENPORT M.L., PUNYASAVATSUT N., STEWART P.W. GUNTHER D.F., SAVENDAHL L., SYBERT V.P., Growth failure in early life: an important manifestation of Turner syndrome, Horm Res. 2002, 57(5–6), 157–164.

GRACKA M., RADOSZEWSKA J., WIŚNIEWSKI A., Choroba dziecka w percepcji rodziców dziewczynek z Zespołem Turnera, Pediatria Polska 1994, LXIX, 6, 431–435.

HALL J.G., SYBERT V., WILLIAMSON R.A., ET AL., Turner’s Syndrome – clinical Genetics Conference, Children’s Ortopedic Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle and University of Washington (Specialty Conference), West J. Med. 1982, Jul., 137, 32–44.

HAVIGHURST R.J., Developmental Tasks and Education, New York 1971.

HOVATTA O., Pregnancies in women with Turner's syndrome, Ann Med. 1999, Apr., 31(2), 106–110.

JEŻ W., Kobiety z zespołem Turnera. Pomiar jakości życia, próba zastosowania pomocy, rozprawa habilitacyjna, Katowice 1999.

LAGROU K., FROIDECOEUR C., VERLINDE F., CRAEN M., DE SCHEPPER J., FRANCOIS I., MASSA G., Psychosocial functioning, self-perception and body image and their auxologic correlates in growth hormone and oestrogen-treated young adult women with Turner syndrome, Horm Res. 2006, 66(6), 277–84. Epub 2006 Aug 11.

LEW-STAROWICZ Z., JEŻ W., IRZYNIEC T., KABZIŃSKA M., BOĆKOWSKA E., Sexual Aspects of Women with Turner’s Syndrome, Sexuality and Disability 2003, Vol. 21, No. 4.

ŁAWNICZAK M., Optymistyczne aspekty współczesnego podejścia do problemów zespołu Turnera, Pediatria Polska 2005, 80, 3, 304–308.

ŁAWNICZAK M., Zintegrowane wspomaganie harmonijnego rozwoju osób dotkniętych zespołem Turnera w Wielkopolsce (aktualny stan, potrzeby), .

ŁAWNICZAK M., ŁĄCKA K., Zintegrowane wspomaganie harmonijnego rozwoju osób dotkniętych zespołem Turnera, [in:] A. Twardowski (ed.), Wspomaganie dzieci z genetycznie uwarunkowanymi wadami rozwoju i ich rodzin, Stowarzyszenie GEN, Poznań 2006.

ŁĄCKA K., Zespół Turnera – korelacja pomiędzy kariotypem a fenotypem, Endokrynologia Polska 2005, t. 56, nr 6.

MASSA G., VERLINDE F., DE SCHEPPER J., THOMAS M., BOURGUIGNON J.P., CRAEN M., DE ZEGHER F., FRANCOIS I., DU CAJU M., MAES M., HEINRICHS C., Trends in age at diagnosis of Turner syndrome, Arch. Dis. Child. 2005, 90, 267–268.

RANKE M.B., Turner Syndrome, European Journal of Endocrinology 1999, 141, 216–217.

SAENGER P., ALBERTSSON WIKLAND K., CONWAY G.S., DAVENPORT M., GRAVHOLT C.H., HINTZ R., HOVATTA O., HULTCRANTZ M., LANDIN-WILHELMSEN K., LIN A., LIPPE B., PASQUINO A.M., RANKE M.B., ROSENFELD R., SILBERBACH M., Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Turner Syndrome, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2001, Vol. 86, No. 7.

SIEGEL P., CLOPPER R., STABLER B., The psychological consequences of Turner Syndrome and Review of the National Cooperative Growth Study Psychological Substudy, Pediatrics 1998, 102, 488–491.

STERNBERG R., A Triangular Theory of Love, [in:] H.T. Reis, C.E. Rusbul., Close Relationships, Psychology Press, New York 2004.

SUZIGAN L.Z., PAIVA E SILVA R.B., LEMOS MARINI S.H., BAPTISTA M.T., GUERRA G. JR, MAGNA L.A., MACIEL GUERRA A.T., Turner syndrome: the patients' view, J. Pediatr (Rio J) 2004 Jul–Aug, 80(4), 309–314.

SUZIGAN L.Z., SILVA R.B., MACIEL-GUERRA A.T., Turner syndrome: psychosocial aspects, Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2005 Feb, 49(1), 157–164. Epub 2006 Mar 16.

VERLINDE F., MASSA G., LAGROU K., FROIDECOEUR C., BOURGUIGNON J.P., CRAEN M., DE SCHEPPER J., DU CAJU M., HEINRICHS C., FRANCOIS I., MAES M., Belgian Study Group of Pediatric Endocrynology; Health and psychosocial status of Patients with Turner syndrome after transition to adulthood: the Belgian experience, Hormone Research 2004, 62, 161–167.

WIŚNIEWSKI A., STUPNICKI R., MILDE K., SZUFLADOWICZ-WOŹNIAK J., Urodzeniowa masa i długość ciała chorych na zespół Turnera, Postępy Neonatologii 2006, nr 2(10).

WOJCISZKE B., Człowiek wśród ludzi. Zarys psychologii społecznej, Scholar, Warszawa 2006.