Main Article Content
American foreign policy towards Egypt during almost three decades of Mubarak’s career as first vice-president, and later president of Egypt. The material underlines the impact of Mubarak’s personality, career and political style on the overall shape of American cooperation with Egypt. Egypt is described as an inherent element of the American foreign policy-making processes. Its most notable role is that of a mediator and facilitator in the Arab-Israeli conflict – in fact, Mubarak at times ventured his country’s position in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to conduct and support peace talks, much to the US approval. In return, Egypt could count on considerable financial aid to maintain its already commendable military might, and develop civic structures. Mubarak’s power was always associated with his status as metaphorical ‘eyes and ears’ of Egyptian army – a position that brought the Egyptian president considerably appreciation on the American part. Mubarak is shown as a leader whose rein relied on cold calculation, pre-planning, unwillingness to improvise and act quickly, and ‘controlled’ risk taking.
Download data is not yet available.
Bezpieczeństwo w wymiarze globalnym, regionalnym i wewnętrznym
- Awolaja A. (2010), Between Nigeria and Egypt ’s presidential crises, “Nigerian Tribune”, March 24, http://www.webcitation.org/5vrcMHuEg (15.01.2015).
- Bregman A. (2002), Israel ’s Wars: A History Since 1947, London-New York.
- El Tohamy O. M. (1981), Egypt ’s Hosni Mubarak picks up Sadat ’s reins: profile, “The Christian Science Monitor”, 14.10.1981, http://www.csmonitor.com/1981/1014/101447.html/%28page%29/2 (14.01.2015).
- Egypt: U.S. withdrawal would hurt Iraq (2006), “USA Today”, 9.04.2006, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2006-04-09-egypt-comments_x.htm (15.01.2015).
- Foreign Relations of The United States, 1969-1976, Vol. XXVI, Arab-Israeli Dispute, 1974-1976, Document 195, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76v26/d195 (14.01.2015).
- Gutkin S. (2008), Hamas offering Israel truce, not peace, “USA Today”, 12.03.2008, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-03-12-374518999_x.htm (15.01.2015).
- Jordan B. J., Pauly R. J. (2007), The Centrality o f Egypt to the Future, in: Strategic Interests in the Middle East: Opposition and Support fo r US Foreign Policy, (eds.) J. Covarrubias, T. Lansford, Hampshire.
- Kalpakian J. (2007), The United States and the Arab League, in: Strategic Interests in the Middle East: Opposition and Support fo r US Foreign Policy, (eds.) J. Covarrubias, T. Lansford, Hampshire.
- McDermott A. (2013), Egypt from Nasser to Mubarak (RLE Egypt): A Flawed Revolution, London-New York.
- Mubarak: From popular President to hated dictator (2011), “The Siasat Daily”, 9.02.2011, http://www.siasat.com/english/news/mubarak-popular-president-hated-dictator (14.01.2015).
- Mubarak warns o f ‘100 bin Ladens (2003), “CNN International”, 1.04.2003, http://edition.cnn.com/2003/W0RLD/meast/03/31/iraq.egypt.mubarak.reut/ (15.01.2015).
- Murphy D. (2011), Joe Biden says Egypt ’s Mubarak No Dictator, He Shouldn’t Step Down, “The Christian Monitor”, 27.01.2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0127/Joe-Biden-says-Egypt-s-Mubarak-no-dictator he-shouldn-t-step-down (15.01.2015).
- Neack L. (2013), The New Foreign Policy: Complex Interactions, Competing Interests, Lanham.
- Profile: Hosni Mubarak (2014), “BBC News Middle East”, 29.11.2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-12301713 (15.01.2014).
- Ray J. L. (2013), American Foreign Policy and Political Ambition, Thousand Oaks.
- Scobey M. (2009), Scenesetter: President Mubarak’s visit to Washington, “WikiLeaks”, http://wikileaks.ch/cable/2009/05/09CAIR0874.html (15.01.2015).
- Shahine A. (2010), Egypt’s Ruling Party Tightens Grip as Mubarak Succession Nears, “Bloomberg”, 25.11.2010, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-24/egypt-s-ruling-party-tightens-gripbe.ore-vote-as-mubarak-successionnears.html (25.01.2015).
- Sharp J. M. (2009), Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations, Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
- Telushkin J. (2014), Rebbe: TheLifeand Teachings ofMenachem M. Schneerson, the Most Influential Rabbi in Modern History, New York.
- The Arab Peace Initiative (2002), http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/league/peace02.htm (15.01.2015).
- The IMF’s model pupil (1999), “The Economist”, 18.03.1999, http://www.economist.com/node/319594/print?story_id=319594 (14.01.2015).