Dzielenie dzieci w szkole na grupy pod względem możliwości intelektualnych jako czynnik ryzyka i wykluczenia

Main Article Content

Lili Israel


The tracking of students in the schools is a topic that obligates social and educational reference. This is a fieldthat exposes gaps and contradictions regarding the possibilities and intentions of parts of Israeli society. It is difficultto definewho is being talked about. In addition, it is difficultto separate between or limit the reference to the single student as a real and feeling subject and the desire of the system for a child as a product of education. It is difficultto describe a general picture without forgetting the individuals in it, the students, when the relationship between the tracking, the dropping out, and the exclusion is unavoidable.This article is an attempt to examine the argument presented in research studies that the gaps between different groups in the population derive from the policy of tracking in education from the establishment of the State of Israel until today and that this policy is intentional. The way that the school as an organization acts and the topics with which it copes can be explained in social policy and in the sociological rationale that characterizes society in Israel.Which social and educational policy serves the tracking of students and why, despite the data and the numbers that indicate a large gap, is the topic of tracking not present in the educational discussion? I seek to assert that research in the field is insufficient and thait is necessary to place the topic on the agenda and conduct an educational discussion.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Israel, L. (2020). Dzielenie dzieci w szkole na grupy pod względem możliwości intelektualnych jako czynnik ryzyka i wykluczenia. Studia Edukacyjne, (46), 405-424.


    Addi-Raccah A., Greenstein Y., Bahak H., Trends of Differentiation or Integration in the Re-sidential Environment on the Basis of the Social Economic Positioning of the Students in the School, Submitted to the Staff of Experts on the Topic of Inequality and Education, Relationships between the Increase in Social Economic Inequality, The Initiative for Applied Research in Education, The Israeli National Academy of the Sciences 2015. (Hebrew).

    Apple M., Ideology and Curriculum (3rd ed.), Routledge and Kegan Paul, London 2004.Belfi B., Goos M., De Fraine B., Van Damme J., The Effect of Class Composition by Gender and Ability on Secondary School Students’ School Well-Being and Academic Self-Concept: A Lite-rature Review, Educational Research Review, 2012, 7.

    Ben-Rabi D., Baruch Kovarski R., Navot M., Konstantinov Tz., Research Report: The Implicit Dropping out in Israel: Re-examination of Disconnection among School Students, Ingleberg Center for Children and Youth, Knesset Committee for the Promotion of the Child’s Rights Jerusalem 2014. (Hebrew)

    Blank K., Shavit Y., Yaish M., Tracking in High School Education in Israel, Report of the Situation of the State – Society, Economy, and Policy, 2015. (Hebrew)

    Blass N., Trends in the Investment of Resources in Education according to Social-Economic Status: Public Investment, Investment of the Third Sector, and Investment of Households, [in:] Equ-ality and Education, Applied Research in Education, Ed. A. Bushrian, The Israeli National Academy of Sciences, 2016. (Hebrew)

    Blass N., Inequality in Education in Israel: From the Cradle to the University, Taub Center for the Research of Social Policy in Israel, 2017. (Hebrew)

    Blass N., Zussman N., Zur S., Segregation of Students in Elementary Schools and Middle Schools, Bank of Israel, Research Division 2014. (Hebrew)

    Cohen-Navot M., Avadya A., The ‘Individual’s Wellbeing’ Program in the Elementary Schools – Evaluation of the Intervention for the Promotion of the Teachers’ Work with Students at Risk, Meyers Joint Brookdale Institute, Jerusalem 2012. (Hebrew)

    Davies S., Guppy N., The Schooled Society, Oxford University Press, New York 2010.

    Dressler M., Individualized Teaching as an Opportunity to Provide a Response to the Differences of Learners, Eureka, 2010, 39-47. (Hebrew)

    Goodman Y., Mizrachi N., National Memory and Civilian Tracking: Ethnic-Class Differences in the Processes of Memory in High Schools in Israel, [in:] Practice of Difference in the Field of Education in Israel: A Look from Above, Eds. Y. Yonah, N. Mizrachi, Y. Feniger, HaKib-butz HaMeuchad Press, 2013. (Hebrew)

    Hallinan M.T., Handbook of the Sociology of Education, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York 2000.

    Kimmerling B., The Invention and Decline of Israeliness, University of California Press, Ber-keley – Los Angeles, CA 2001.Lampert H., Children Lacking in Value: On the Costs of Achievement-Oriented Education, Mofet Institute, 2013. (Hebrew)

    Lareau A., Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life, University of California Press, Berkeley 2003.

    Levitt S., List J., Neckermann S., Saidoff S., The Behavior List Goes to School. Leveraging Beha-vioral Economics to Improve Educational Performance, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper, 2012, 18185, Available on internet.Lipstat N., Glickman H., Equality of Opportunities in Education in the Mirror of National Tests: A Selection of Data from Longitudinal Research in the Fields of English and Mathematics, The National Authority for Measurement and Evaluation in Education (RAMA), 2014. (Hebrew)

    Ministry of Education, Director General Circular 54/8, March 3, 1994, Ministry of Edu-cation Website: (Hebrew)Ministry of Education, Director General Circular 2010/4(A), December 1, Ministry of Education Website, 2010, (Hebrew)

    Ministry of Education, Director General Circular 2015/2(A), Ministry of Education Websi-te, 2014: (Hebrew)

    Molcho A., The Argument of Tracking: A Test Case in Critical Sociology, 2011. (Hebrew)

    Moore P., Luriah A., The Power of the Educational Counselor, The School as a Promoting Educational Environment, Ashalim, Jerusalem 2010. (Hebrew)

    Moore P., Mandelson Y., To Speak with Adolescents at Risk: The Psychosocial Educational Per-ception, Ashelim, Jerusalem 2006. (Hebrew)

    Motola M., Mittleberg D., Razer M., Mechanisms in the School that Create, Preserve, Increase, and Resolve Social Exclusion, Intermediate Report, 146, Oranim College Research Department, 2014. (Hebrew)Oakes J., Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality (2nd ed.), Yale University Press, New Haven, CT 2005.

    OECD, 2014, Society at a Glance 2014: OECD Social Indicators, OECD Publishing.RAMA – The National Authority for Measurement and Evaluation in Education, Students in Vocational Schools, Characteristics, Attitudes, and Scholastic Achievements,Ministry of Education 2016. (Hebrew)

    Sabag K., Biberman-Shalev L., Education, Society, and Justice, Haifa Press, Prades 2014. (Hebrew).Sabirsky S., Dagan-Bozaglo N., Inequality and Weak Control: A Picture of the Situation of Edu-cation in Israel, Adva Center, Tel Aviv 2009. (Hebrew)

    Sabirsky S., Dagan-Bozaglo N., Enough Tracking, Echo of Education, 2011, 86. (Hebrew)

    Schonert-Reichel K.A., Children and Youth at Risk: Some Conceptual Considerations. Paper prepared for the Pan-Canadian Education Research Agenda Symposium, Canadian Education Statistics Council, Children and Youth at Risk, 2000.

    Teller L., Why Groupings? What Are the Goals of the Method of Grouping and What It Truly Achieves, Society: Socialist Journal for Issues of Society, Economy, Politics, and Culture, 2003, 9. (Hebrew)

    Tobin D., Improvement of Achievements in the Upper Schools: Management Practices, Structures, and Processes, Research Report, Ben Gurion University, Education Department, 2012. (Hebrew)

    Torres C.A., Antikainen A., Introduction to a Sociology of Education: Old Dilemmas in a New Century? [in:] The International Handbook on the Sociology of Education,Eds. C.A. Torres, A. Antikainen, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Lanham, Maryland 2003.

    Zussman N., Zur S., The Contribution of Vocational High School in contrast to Academic High School to Education and Success in the Job Market, Bank of Israel, Research Division, Series of Articles for Discussion, 2010, 5. (Hebrew).