Main Article Content
Sleep is important to physical and mental development. Studies show that adolescents suffer from electronic media exposure-related inadequate and non-quality sleep. In Israel, traditional, conserva-tive Arab society is undergoing a modernization process with exposure to the Western lifestyle and Israeli Jewish culture. This comparative cross-sectional study compared electronic media exposure’s impact on sleep in secular Jewish and Arab society in Israel, involving 229 middle and high school adolescents, 118 Arabs and 111 Jews. Research tools were the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Jewish adolescents are more exposed to electronic media than are Arab adolescents only during mid-week. Weak but significantcorrelations were found between late night use of electronic media and sleep duration; increased exposure to television (r = -0.17, p = .01), mobile telephone r = -0.21, p = .002), and tablet (r = -0.14, p = .02) related to shorter sleep duration and longer sleep latency mid-week in both groups and later weekend wake-up time. Arab adolescents are sleepier during the day and have more sleep-related behavior problems. As electronic media exposure rises, sleep duration shortens, and sleep time is postponed in both cultures. Exposure to electronic media is higher among Jewish adolescents. Boys sleep longer than girls during the week (a difference of nearly an hour).
- Alfano C.A., Zakem A.H., Costa N.M., Taylor L.K., Weems C.F., Sleep problems and their relation to cognitive factors, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents, Depression and Anxiety, 2009, 26(6).
- Al-Haj M., Kinship and modernization in development societies: The emergence of instrumentali-zed kinship, Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 1995, 26.
- Almog T., Almog E., Connected 24/7 – Digital children. In: Generation Y Research (Chap-ter 7), 2014, retrieved from the website: http://www.peopleil.org/details.aspx?ite-mID=30424&searchMode=0&index=3 (Hebrew)
- Anabusi N., Relations between communication style and parenting style and communication and style of conflict resolution in the family among Arab adolescents, M.A. Thesis, The Depart-ment of Psychology, Haifa University, Haifa 2007. (Hebrew)
- Brown J.D., Witherspoon E.M., The mass media and American adolescent’s health, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2002, 31.
- Calamaro G.J., Mason T., Ratciffe S.J., Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning, Pediatrics, 2009, 123(6).
- Coulombe J., Reid G., Boyle M., Racine Y., Sleep problems, tiredness, and psychological symp-toms among healthy adolescents, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2011, 36.
- Flint-Bretler E., The influence of parental intervention on the exposure to media and sleep patterns among adolescents, Ph.D. dissertation, Authority for Advanced Studies, Haifa University, Haifa 2013. (Hebrew)
- Fredriksen K., Rhodes J., Reddy R., Way N., Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years, Child Development, 2004, 75(1).
- Giannotti F., Cortesi F., Sebastiani T., Ottaviano S., Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behavior in adolescence, Journal of Sleep Research, 2002, 11(3).
- Kaneita Y., Suzuki K. et al., Association between mental health status and sleep status among ad-olescents in Japan: a nationwide cross-sectional survey, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2007, 68(9).
- Lavee Y., Katz R., Division of labor, perceived fairness, and marital quality: The effect of gender ideology, Journal of Marriage and Family, 2002, 64(1).
- LeBourgeois M.K., Giannotti F., Cortesi F., Wolfson R., Harsh J., The relationship between reported sleep quality and sleep hygiene in Italian and American adolescents, Pediatrics, 2005, 155.
- Liu X., Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior, Sleep, 2004, 27.
- McCoy J., Strecker R., The cognitive cost of sleep lost, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 2011, 96(4).
- Meijer A.M., Habekothe H.T., Van Den Wittenboer G.L., Time in bed, quality of sleep and school functioning of children, Journal of Sleep Research, 2000, 9(2).
- Perach P., Parent-child relation and emotional social functioning of Arab adolescents, M.A. Thesis, Department of Education, Haifa University, Haifa 2002. (Hebrew)
- Perez J.E., Little T., Heinrich C., Spirituality and depressive symptom in a school-based sample of adolescents: A longitudinal examination of mediated and moderated effects, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2008, 44.
- Shapira T., Self-efficacy, perception of culture, and empowerment of women: meanings of gender, Studies of Administration and Organization of Education, 2011, 32. (Hebrew)
- Sharabany R., Eshel Y., Hakim C., Boyfriend, girlfriend in traditional society: Parenting styles and development of intimate friendships among Arabs in school, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2006, 32(1).
- Shehala A., Conditioned relation of parent and psychological, social, and scholastic adjustment as dependent on the structure of personal values among Arab youths, M.A. Thesis, Haifa University, Haifa 2012. (Hebrew)
- Shochat T., Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep, Nature and Science of Sleep, 2012, 4.
- Shochat T., Sleep patterns and daytime sleep-related behavior in male and female Arab and Jewish adolescents in Israel: Sleep and biological rhythms, Japanese Society of Sleep Research, 2013, 1-8.
- Shochat T., Flint-Bretler O., Tzischinsky O., Sleep patterns, electronic media exposure and day-time sleep-related behaviors among Israeli adolescents, Pediatric, 2010, 99.
- Shochat T., Cohen-Zion M., Tzischinsky O., Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: A systematic review, Sleep Medicine Reviews, 2014.
- Smith A., Stewart D., Peled M., Poom C., Saewyc E., A picture of health: Highlights from the 2008 BC Adolescent Health Survey, MaCreary Center Society, Vancouver, BC: 2009.
- Suleiman-Dehalala V., Differences in the perception of parenting between Arab adolescents in Israel and their siblings of the same sex and between boys and girls, M.A. Thesis, The Scien-ces of Philosophy, Haifa University, Haifa 2013. (Hebrew)
- Wolfson A.R., Carskadon M.A., Understanding adolescent’s sleep patterns and school perfor-mance: A critical appraisal, Sleep Medicine Reviews, 2003, 7(6).World Health Organization, Inequalities in young people’s health: Health behavior in school-a-ged children – international report from the 2005/2006 survey, Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, 2008, 5.