The worldwide discourse on the problem of corporal punishment presents the discussion and results of research that gives the evidence of serious harm that CP does. In this light the need of intensive efforts to eliminate corporal punishment as the most frequent form of violence against children is strongly emphasized in the last years. Among different activities dedicated to stop the problem research on various indicators correlated with the use of corporal punishment are recommended. One of them is social acceptance of violent behaviors in relationship with a child. Due to this recommendations also in Poland proper research has been done in order to get a diagnosis of social attitudes towards corporal punishment. This paper presents some results of the research of the year 2017 commissioned by the Ombudsman for Children, which was the 7th edition of the monitoring of social attitudes on violence in upbringing that has been continued since 2011. The below presentations focuses on results of parents as a group of the general population. Additionally parents were asked also about their own behaviors towards their children, as an attempt not to assess directly the range of the use of corporal punishment by them but to get the picture of the another face of their attitudes toward the problem. In the face of the results it can be said that the picture of parents’ approval of violence in upbringing must be regarded as problematic and needing determined interventions. The most problematic is the level of the acceptance of these behaviors, which often are not clearly named in a public space as violence like spanking. The level of the approval of violence toward children among Polish parents should be
regarded as a negative context of child well-being in Poland which definitely conduces to the existence of violent behaviors in everyday rising practices and the harm experienced by children.
A familiar face. Violence in the life of children and adolescents, UNICEF, New York 2017.
Afifi T.O. i in., Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience, Child Abuse and Neglect, 2017, 71.
Annual report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children, August 2017, http://srsg.violenceagainstchildren.org/http://www.srsg.un.org/
Child is a child. Protecting children on the move from violence, abuse and exploitation, UNICEF, 2017.
Durrant J.E., Trocmé N., Fallon B.M.C., Black T., Knoke D., Punitive violence against children in Canada [CECW information sheet #41E], Toronto 2006.
Durrant J.E., Ensom R., Corporal punishment of children: Lessons from 20 years of research, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2012, 184.
Durrant J., Plateau D.P., Ateah C.A., Holden G.W., Barker L.A., Stewart-Tufescu A., Jones A.D., Ly G., Ahmed R., Parents’ views of the relevance of a violence prevention program in high, medium, and low human development contexts, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2017, 41(4).
Fang S., Brown D.S., Florence S.C., Mercy J.A., The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention, Child Abuse & Neglect, 2012, 36.
Ferguson C.J., Spanking, corporal punishment and negative longterm outcomes: A meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies, Clinical Psychology Review, 2013, 33.
Gershoff E.T., Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review, Psychological Bulletin, 2002, 128.
Gershoff E.T., Spanking and child development: We know enough now to stop hitting our children, Child Development Perspectives, 2013, 7(3), s. 133-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12038
Gershoff E.T., Grogan-Kaylor A., Lansford J.E., Chang L., Zelli A., Deater-Deckard K., Dodge K.A., Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations With Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness, Child Development, 2010, 81, 2.
Gershoff E.T., Ansari A., Purtell K.M., Sexton H.R., Changes in parents’ spanking and reading as mechanisms for Head Start impacts on children, Journal of Family Psychology, 2016 Advance online publication, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000172.
Gershoff E.T., Grogan-Kaylor A., Spanking and Child Outcomes: Old Controversies and New Meta-Analyses, Journal of Family Psychology, 2016.
Gershoff E.T., Leeb S.J., Durrant J.E., Promising intervention strategies to reduce parents’ use of physical punishment, Child Abuse & Neglect, 2017, 71.
Glaser D., The effects of maltreatment on the developing brain, The Link, 2000, 16, 2.
Hidden in Plain sight. A statistical analysis of violence against children, UNICEF, New York September 2014.
http://www.unic.un.org.pl/files/164/Agenda%202030_pl_2016_ostateczna.pdf [dostęp: 08.11.2017].
Informacja o działalności Rzecznika Praw dziecka z kolejnych lat 2012-2016, http://brpd.gov.pl/sprawozdania-z-dzialalnosci
Investing in children: the European child maltreatment prevention action plan 2015–2020, WHO, 2014.
Jarosz E., Polacy wobec bicia dzieci. Raport z badań 2013 dostępnych na stronie RPD, http://brpd.gov.pl/ksiazki-informatory-poradniki/przemoc-w-wychowaniu-miedzy-prawnym-zakazem-spoleczna-akceptacja
Jarosz E., Przemoc w wychowaniu. Między prawnym zakazem a społeczną akceptacją, BRPD, Warszawa 2015.
Jarosz E., Przemoc w wychowaniu – czas z tym skończyć. Raport Rzecznika Praw Dziecka 2017,
Jarosz E., Nowak A., Dzieci ofiary przemocy w rodzinie. Raport Rzecznika Praw Dziecka, BRPD, Warszawa 2012.
Know Violence in Childhood, Ending Violence in Childhood. Global Report 2017.
Know Violence in Childhood, New Delhi 2017, India.
Lansford J.E., Cappa C., Putnick D.L., Bornstein M.H., Deater-Deckard K., Bradley R.H., Change over time in parents’ beliefs about and reported use of corporal punishment in eight countries with and without legal bans, Child Abuse & Neglect, 2017, 71.
Larzelere R.E., Kuhn B.R., Comparing child outcomes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics: A metaanalysis, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2005, 8, s. 1-37, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-005-2340-z.
Lee S.J., Taylor C.A., Altschul I., Rice J.C., Parental spanking and subsequent risk for child aggression in father-involved families of youngchildren? Children and Youth Services Review, 2013, 35(9).
Paolucci E.O., Violato C., A meta-analysis of the published research on the affective, cognitive, and behavioral effects of corporal punishment, The Journal of Psychology, 2004, 138, s. 197-221, http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.138.3.197-222.
Pinheiro P.S., World report on violence against children, UN, Lizbona 2006, www.violencestudy. int.
Romano E., Bell T., Norian R., Corporal punishment :examining Attitudes toward the law and factors influencing attitude change, Journal of Family Violence, 2013, 28.
Strauss M., Paschall M.J., Corporal Punishment by mothers and development of children’s cognitive ability: a longitudinal study of two nationally representative age cohorts, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 2009, 18(5).
Teicher M., Wounds that time won’t heals. The neurobiology of child abuse, Cerebrum, 2000, 4.
The Global Initiative to End Corporal Punishment: http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/
Tomoda A., Suzuki H., Rabi K., Sheu Yi-Shin, Polcari A., Teicher M.H., Reduced Prefrontal Cortical Gray Matter Volume in Young Adults Exposed to Harsh Corporal Punishment, Neuroimage, 2009 Aug; 47(2).
Towards a world free from violence. Global Survey on violence against children, SRSG on Violence against children, New York 2013.
Zolotor A.J., Theodore A.D., Runyan D.K., Chang J.J., Laskey A.L., Corporal punishment and physical abuse: Population-based trends for three-to-11-year-old children in the United States, Child Abuse Review, 2011, 20.