The research focuses on Arab parents who chose to send their children to the bilingual schools in Israel. The objective is to address the factors that led to the dropping out of Arab students from public education and their participation in alternative education. This research presents the problems of the Arab schools, both in terms of the quality of the instruction and the academic achievements. The main argument is that the goals of Arab education in Israel discuss the need to instill in the students the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish state, without referring to the fact that in this society there is an Arab minority with its own nationality and the right to be an integral part of this society. This ignoring of the needs of the Arab student caused a decline in the quality of the instruction and in the academic achievements of the Arab schools in Israel. As a result of the disappointment of the parents, especially the “intellectual” parents, in pedagogical and social terms and in terms of the students’ personal-national identity, “alternative education” developed in Arab society and Arab students dropped out of public education. This research found a high degree of satisfaction with alternative education in general and bilingual education in particular in all areas and primarily in the formation of the Arab student’s personal and national identity.
Abu Asba K., The Dropping out of Students in the Arab Educational System in Israel: Description of the Situation and Suggestions for Treatment, 1999. (Hebrew)
Abu Asba K., Attitudes of Different Factors in Arab Society on the Question of an Alternative Structure for the Arab Educational System in Israel: Summative Report, Israel: Follow-up after Issues of Arab Education in Israel, Institute for Research, Planning, and Educational Counseling, Gat: Masser 2003. (Hebrew)
Abu Asba K., Between Tolerance and Threat, Facets: Journal for Culture, Society, and Education, 2004, 29. (Hebrew)
Abu Asba K., The School Principal Is Subject to Great Pressures on the Part of the Clans, Another Country, 2005. (Hebrew)
Abu Asba K., Arab Education in Israel: Dilemmas of a National Minority, 2007. (Hebrew)
Abu Saad I., Multicultural Education and the Palestinian Arab Minority in Israel: The Issue of Bedouin Arab Education in the Negev, [In:] Education in a Multicultural Society: Pluralism and Points of Encounter between Social Rifts, Ed. P. Pery, Carmel, Jerusalem 2007, p. 125- 142. (Hebrew)
Adiv U., Mor O., Azaiza F., Hertz-Lazarovitz R., National Perception, Shared Activity, and Bilingual Education: The Case of the Galil School, Discovery: Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Society, and Culture, 2013, January. (Hebrew)
Agbaria A.K., Jabareen Y., Policy of Training Arab Teachers in Israel in the Mirror of the Right to Education: Issues of Governance as an Expression of Recognition of the National-Cultural Uniqueness, Pages – Journal for Study and Research in Education, 2015, Mofet Institute. (Hebrew)
Al-Haj M., Trouble of Employment among Arab Academics in Israel, [In:] Arab Academics in Israel: Main Characteristics, Potential of Graduates, and Situation, Ed. M. Al-Haj, The Jewish- Arab Center, Haifa University, 1988. (Hebrew)
Al-Haj M., Arab Educational System in Israel: Issues and Trends, Floresheimer Institute for Policy Researches, Jerusalem 1994. (Hebrew)
Al-Haj M., Education, Empowerment, and Control: The Case of the Arabs in Israel, State University of New York Press, Albany, New York 1995.
Al-Haj M., Education among the Arabs in Israel: Control and Social Change, Magnes Press, Jerusalem 1996. (Hebrew)
Al-Haj M., Multiculturalism in Deeply Divided Societies: The Israeli case, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2002, 26(2), April.
Amara M., The Model of Bilingualism of Hand In Hand, The Center for Jewish Arab Education in Israel, 2005. (Hebrew)
Amara M., Saban I., The Status of the Arabic Language in Israel: Law, Reality, and Boundaries of Use in Law to Change the Reality, State and Society, 2004, 4. (Hebrew)
Anderson J. (Ed.), The Rise of the Modern State, Brighton 1986.
Aspachs-Bracons O., Clots-Figueras I., Costa-Font J., Masella P., Compulsory Language Educational Policies and Identity Formation, Journal of the European Economic Association, 2008, 6, 2-3.
Avnon D., The Non-Democratic Aspect of the Basic Laws on the Topics of the Rights of Man, Politics, 1998, 2. (Hebrew)
Babiya I., The Ethnic Transfer in Palestine, Institute for the Study of Palestinianism, Beirut 2007. (Arabic)
Baker C., European Models of Bilingual Education, 1993.
Barak A., The Values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and Democratic State, Multidisciplinary Thinking in Humanistic Education, 2011, 6. (Hebrew)
Bargouti S., Israeli Educational Core Requires Fair Inclusion of the Arab Public, Multidisciplinary Thought in Humanistic Education, 2011, 6. (Hebrew)
Barnea S., Israeliness – Nationalism or Citizenship? Crisis and Anomaly in the Arab-Israeli Identity, [In:] New Directions: Journal for Issues of Zionism, Judaism, Policy, Society, and Culture, Ed. E. Ayal, 2011, 24, June. (Hebrew)
Bar-Tal D., Shared Beliefs in a Society: Social Psychological Analysis, Sage, London 2000.
Bekerman Z., Shhadi N., Palestinian Jewish Bilingual Education in Israel: Its Influence on School Students, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 2003, 24(6).
Ben Shemesh Y., Individuality and Post-Nationalism in the Kadan Affair: Response to Yosef Gavrian, Acts of Law, 2010, 3. (Hebrew)
Bruner J., Peled Y., Rawls on Respect and Self-Respect: An Israeli Perspective, Political Studies, 1996, 44(2), June.
Crawford J., Best Evidence: Research Foundations of the Bilingual Education Act, National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Washington DC: 1997.
Dovrin N., Equality of Opportunities in Education and Demographic and Socioeconomic Barriers, 2015. (Hebrew)
Ghanem A., Levin-Rosales M., Game of Identities: The Construction of Identity among Palestinian Women Citizens of Israel Who Studied in Schools in the Jewish Sector, Trends, 2015, 51, May. (Hebrew)
Ghanem A., Mustafa M., The Palestinians in Israel – The Policy of the Minority in the Ethnic State, Medar – The Palestinian Center for the Study of Israeliness, 2009. (Arabic)
Golan-Agnon D., Why Are the Arab Students in Israel Discriminated Against? [In:] Inequality in Education, Ed. D. Golan-Agnon, Babel, Tel Aviv 2004. (Hebrew)
Hand In Hand Association Website (n.d.). http://www.handinhandk12.org/
Hatav N., The Future Orientation of Youths in Arab Society in Israel: Characteristics and Factors, M.A. Thesis, The Open University, Jerusalem 1988. (Hebrew)
Jabareen Y., Law and Education: Critical Perspectives on Arab Education in Israel, American Behavioral Scientist, 2006, 49(8).
Jabareen Y., On the Constitutional Status of the Arab Minority in Israel: New Motion, State and Society, 2010, 7 (1). (Hebrew)
Jabareen Y., Agbaria A.K., Education on Hold; Government Policy and Civil Initiatives for the Promotion of Arab Education in Israel, Haifa University, The Faculty of Law, Drasat: Arab Center for Law and Policy, 2010. (Hebrew)
Jabareen Y., Agbaria A., Autonomy for Arab Education in Israel. Rights and Possibilities, Knowledge Discovery, 2014, 5, Spring. (Hebrew)
Jamal A., On the Patterns of the Establishment of the National Inequality in Israel, 2004. (Hebrew)
Kelman H.C., Group Processes in the Resolution of International Conflicts: Experiences from the Israeli-Palestinian Case, American Psychologist, 1997, 52.
Koren H., The Identity as Awareness: The Palestinians and the Arab Citizens of Israel – Between Unity and Uniqueness, National Security, 2009, 7, August. (Hebrew)
Landau Y., The Arab Minority in Israel, 1967-1991, Levi Eshkol Institute, The Hebrew University, Am Oved 1993. (Hebrew)
Mari S., Arab Education in Israel, Syracuse University Press, New York Press, Boulder, Syracuse 1978.
Mor-Sommerfeld A., Azaiza F., Hertz-Lazarowitz R., Into the Future: Towards Bilingual Education in Israel, Education, Citizenship, and Social Justice, 2007, 2(1).
Noyberger B., Minorities and Democracy, [In:] Knowledge, Society, and Regime, Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport, Service of Publications, Jerusalem 1995. (Hebrew)
Pinson H., Anon D. (Eds.), Citizenship, Civil Society, and Education: The Israeli Case in the Mirror of Western Democracies, [In:] The Language of the Citizen in Israel, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 2006. (Hebrew)
Rabin Y., The Right to Education, Li-On Sarigim, Nebo 2002. (Hebrew)
Saban I., The Collective Rights of the Palestinian Arab Minority: What There Is, What There Isn’t, and the Taboo, Studies in Law, 2002, 26, 1. (Hebrew)
Shwade U., Shavit Y., Delasha M. Ofek M., Integration of Arabs and Jews in the School in Israel, [In:] Report of the Situation of the State – Society, Economy, and Policy, Ed. D. Ben David, Taub Center for the Research of Social Policy in Israel, 2014. (Hebrew)
Smooha S., Measures of Jewish-Arab Relations in Israel, Haifa University, 2004. (Hebrew)
Tzartzur S., Arab Education in the Jewish State, 1981. (Hebrew)
Zilbersheid U., The Legal-Political Development of the Declaration of Independence – Victory of the Perception of Bourgeoisie Democracy, Democratic Culture, 2009, 12, 7. (Hebrew)