„To Wariusz, świetny zwycięzco, opisze twe czyny” (Hor. P. I 6,1). Kilka rozważań na temat stosunków między Horacym a Oktawianem Augustem do roku 17 przed Chr

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Owsianna (Kubiaczyk), M. (2010). „To Wariusz, świetny zwycięzco, opisze twe czyny” (Hor. P. I 6,1). Kilka rozważań na temat stosunków między Horacym a Oktawianem Augustem do roku 17 przed Chr. Studia Europaea Gnesnensia, (1-2), 149–162. Pobrano z https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/seg/article/view/2391


Horace, having had the taste of the laws of cruel Bellona, decided to dedicate him-
self to peaceful Muse. His fi rst works expressed anxiety and fears of uncertain future,
in the sixteenth iambic he called to escape to the Happy Isles. Th anks to the talent and
a stroke of luck, he met Maecenas, and became a member of his circle for good, winning
the undying friendship of his protector. Still, the poet resolutely manifested a strong
need of his literary independence, in that he refused to engage in political subjects, or 

rejected the off er of becoming Octavian’s secretary. He desired to propagate universal
themes, did not forbear refl ection on the fragility and transience of life, on the neces-
sity of using the moment we are given, though using it with skill. He tried to avoid
extremes, shun excessive wealth, problems of the noisy Rome, to content himself with
small things. He found that modest estate, the ability to talk with friends with glass
of good caecubum were more important than the splendour of the palace. Even when
mocking human vices, he would indicate the noble examples from the past. Despite
his unwillingness to depict the deeds of victors, which he excused with lack of aptitude
and inadequacy of the style, he did not remain deaf to the call of the Homeland. Having
been, along with Maecenas, Livius or Virgil, a witness of the downfall of the Republic
and the birth of something new, he would take a critical look at his contemporaries,
seeking a way out of the adverse situation. He followed the actions of Octavian atten-
tively, to give him the credit of his trust only aft er a time, and to serve the common
cause, the moral revival of the society. Still, he was aware of prinicipate’s dark side, of
certain constraints imposed on the freedom of speech. Hence, he took refuge in the
arms of un-political Poetry, which nevertheless features references to the desired val-
ues, to Octavian’s ideological agenda. Th e ruler gave society an illusion, in which the
war-fatigued, blood-stained Italy is transformed into Happy Isles. Th e Poet wanted the
latter to become fact, by virtue of return to the former morality.



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Owidiusz, Fasti I, 609–615, przeł. E. Wesołowska)

Propaganda i legislacja matrymonialna Augusta, [w:] Ideologia i propaganda w starożytności. Materiały z konferencji Komisji Historii Starożytnej PTH, Rzeszów 12–14 września 2000, Rzeszów 2004, s. 356.

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Zanker P. August i potęga obrazów, Poznań 1999.


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