Krew i kurzawa w greckiej historiografii klasycznej albo o zmarginalizowanych elementach Homerowego opisu pola bitwy

Słowa kluczowe

classical Greece
battlefield description

Jak cytować

Kostuch, L. (2021). Krew i kurzawa w greckiej historiografii klasycznej albo o zmarginalizowanych elementach Homerowego opisu pola bitwy. Studia Europaea Gnesnensia, (23), 9–31.


Contemporary historians believe that Greek historiography emerging on the eve of the classical period adopted numerous elements from the Homeric description of battle scenery. The aim of this paper is to analyze the earliest historical works while looking for the blood and dust, the two greatly important attributes of the Homeric world of warfare. However, it turns out that blood and dust, so intimately associated with the portrayal of the physical site of battle in Homer, did not become a per- manent element in the historical accounts of military clashes in Greek historiography, even though it was an inevitable component of the military experience of historians and their readers.


Adcock F.E. 1957, The Greek and Macedonian Art of War, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London. Anderson J.K. 1970, Military Theory and Practice in the Age of Xenophon, Berkeley-Los Angeles. Avenarius G. 1957, Lukians Schrift zur Geschichtsschreibung, Meisenheim am Glan.

Boedeker D. 2003, Pedestrian Fatalities: The Prosaics of Death in Herodotus, [w:] P. Derow, R. Parker (red.), Herodotus and his World, Oxford, s. 17-36.

Boncquet J. 1982-1983, Polybius and the Critical Evaluation of Historians, Ancient Society, 13-14, s. 277-291.

Bruzzone R. 2017, Polemos, Pathemata, and Plague: Thucydides’ Narrative and the Tradition of Upheaval, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 57, s. 882-909.

Carrière C. 1998, Oracles et prodigies de Salamine: Hérodote et Athènes, Dialogues d’histoire an- cienne, 14, s. 210-230.

Chaniotis A. 2005, War in the Hellenistic World. A Social and Cultural History, Oxford, s. 191-207. Crowley J. 2014, Beyond the Universal Soldier: Combat Trauma in Classical Antiquity, [w:] P. Me- ineck, D. Konstan (red.), Combat Trauma and the Ancient Greeks, New York, s. 105-130.

Echols E. 1952, Military Dust, Classical Journal 47, s. 285-288.

Fenik B. 1968, Typical Battle Scenes in the Iliad: Studies in the Narrative Techniques of Homeric Battle Description, Wiesbaden.

Fink D.L. 2014., The Battle of Marathon in Scholarship. Research, Theories and Controversies since 1850, Jefferson.

Fornara C.W. 1983, The Nature of History in Ancient Greece and Rome, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London.

Foster E. 2017, Campaign and Battles Narratives in Thucydides, [w:] S. Forsdyke, E. Foster, R. Balot (red.), Oxford Handbook of Thucydides, Oxford, s. 301-318.

Funke P., Haake M. 2006, Theaters of War: Thucydidean Topography, [w:] A. Rengakos, A. Tsak- makis (red.), Brill’s Companion to Thucydides, Leiden-Boston, s. 369-384.

Głombiowski K. 1993, Ksenofont. Żołnierz i pisarz, Wrocław.

Gowing A.M. 1992, The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio, Ann Arbor.

Georgiadou A., Larmour D. 1994, Lucian and Historiography: „De Historia Conscribends” and „Ve- rae Historiae”, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II, 34, 2, s. 1448-1508.

Grossman D.L., Christensen W. 2007, On Combat: The Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Con- flict in War and in Peace, Illinois.

Hanson V.D. 1989, The Western Way of War. Infantry Battle in Classical Greece, Berkeley-Los An- geles.

Hau L.I. 2013, Nothing to Celebrate? The Lack of Disparagement of Victory Celebrations in the Gre- ek Historians, [w:] A. Sparlinger, J. Armstrong (red.), Rituals of Triumph in the Mediterranean World, Leiden, s. 57-74.

Holmes R. 1985, Acts of War: The Behaviour of Men in Battle, London.

Hölscher T. 2003, Images of War in Greece and Rome: Between Military Practice, Public Memory, and Cultural Symbolism, Journal of Roman Studies, 93, s. 1-17.

Hope V.M. 2015, Bodies on the Battlefield: The Spectacle of Rome’s Fallen Soldiers, [w:] A. Bako- gianni, V. M. Hope (red.), War as Spectacle: Ancient and Modern Perspectives on the Display of Armed Conflict, London-New York, s. 157–178.

Hornblower S. 1994, Introduction, [w:] S. Hornblower (red.), Greek Historiography, Oxford. Hornblower S. 2008, Introduction, [w:] P. Sabin, H. van Wees, M. Whitby (red.), The Cambridge

History of Greek and Roman Warfare, 1: Greece, the Hellenistic World and the Rise of War, Cambridge, s. 22-53.

Hunter R. 2006, Homer and Greek Literature, [w:] R. Fowler (red.), A Cambridge Companion to Homer, Cambridge, s. 241-245.

Keegan J. 1976, The Face of Battle, New York.

Kinnee L. 2018, The Greek and Roman Trophy. From Battlefield Marker to Icon of Power, London--New York.

Konijnendijk R. 2017, Classical Greek Tactics. A Cultural History, Leiden.

Konstan D. 2014, Introduction. Combat Trauma: The Missing Diagnosis in Ancient Greece, [w:] P. Meineck, D. Konstan (red.), Combat Trauma and the Ancient Greeks, New York, s. 1-13.

Kostuch L. 2018, Have vultures left the battlefield? Scavengers and war in Greek historiography, Histos. The New Electronic Journal of Ancient Historiography 12, s. 116-138.

Krentz P. 1985, Casualities in Hoplite Battles, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 26, s. 13-20.

Krentz P. 2002, Fighting by the Rules: The Invention of the Hoplite Agôn, Hesperia, 71, s. 32-33.

Krentz P. 2013, Hoplite Hell: How Hoplites Fought, [w:] D. Kagan, G.F. Viggiano (red.), Men of Bronze. Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece, Princeton, s. 134-156.

Larsen S.E. 2004, Landscape, Identity, and War, New Literary History, 35, 3, s. 469-490.

Lateiner D. 2002, Pouring Bloody Drops (Iliad 16.459): The Grief of Zeus, Classical Quarterly, 38, s. 42-61.

Lateiner D. 2007, Contest (Agōn) in Thucydides, [w:] J. Marincola (red.), A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography, Oxford, s. 336-341.

Lazenby J. 1991, The Killing Zone, [w:] V.D. Hanson (red.), Hoplites. The Classical Greek Battle Experience, London-New York.

Lazenby J.F. 1993, The Defence of Greece, 490-479, Warminster.

Lee J.W.I. 2007, A Greek Army on the March: Soldiers and Survival in Xenophon’s Anabasis, Cam- bridge.

Lehmann G.A. 1974, Polybios und die ältere und zeitgenössische griechische Geschichtsschreibung, [w:] E. Gabba (red.), Polybe, Genève, s. 146-200.

Lendon J.E. 1999, The Rhetoric of Combat: Greek Military Theory and Roman Culture in Julius Ca- esar’s Battle Descriptions, Classical Antiquity, 18, s. 291-294.

Lendon J.E. 2017, Battle Description in the Ancient Historians. I: Structure, Array, and Fighting, Greece and Rome 64, 1, s. 39-64; II: Speeches, Results, and Sea Battles, Greece and Rome, 64, 2, s. 145-167.

Luce T.J. 1997, Greek Historians, London-New York.

Marincola J. 1996, Authority and Tradition in Ancient Historiography, Cambridge.

Marincola J. 2001, Greek Historians, Greece & Rome New Surveys in the Classics 31, Cambridge-New York.

Marincola J. 2006, Herodotus and the Poetry of the Past, [w:] C. Dewald, J. Marincola (red.), The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus, Cambridge.

Marincola J. 2007, Introduction, [w:] J. Marincola (red.), A Companion to Greek and Roman Histo- riography, Oxford, s. 2-8.

Marincola J. 2011, Historians and Homer, [w:] M. Finkelberg (red.), The Homer Encyclopedia, II, Malden Mass.-Oxford, s. 357-359.

Marincola J. 2012, Introduction. A Past Without Historians, [w:] J. Marincola, L. Llewellyn-Jones, C. Maciver (red.), Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras. History Without Historians, Edinburgh, s. 1-13.

Marincola J. 2018, Ὁμηρικώτατος? Battle Narratives in Herodotus, [w:] E. Bowie (red.), Herodotus – Narrator, Scientists, Historian, Berlin-Boston, s. 3-24.

Momigliano A. 1978, The Historians of the Classical World and Their Audiences, The American Scholar, 2, s. 193-204.

Murray L. 2014, Psychologia wojny. Strach i odwaga na polu bitwy, Warszawa. Neal T. 2006a, Blood and Hunger in the Iliad, Classical Philology, 101, s. 15-33.

Neal T. 2006b, The Wounded Hero. Non-Fatal Injury in Homer’s Iliad, Bern.

Nicolai R. 2007, The Place of History in the Ancient World, [w:] J. Marincola (red.), A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography, Oxford, s. 13-26.

Paul G.M. 1987, Two Battles in Thucydides, Échos du monde classique, 31, s. 307-312.

Pothou V. 2013, Transformation of Landscape in Thucydides, [w:] A. Tsakmakis, M. Tamiolaki (red.), Thucydides Between History and Literature, Berlin-Boston, s. 167-180.

Pritchett W.K. 1974., The Greek State at War, I, Berkeley-Los Angeles.

Raaflaub K. 2013, Homer and the Agony of Hoplite Battle, Ancient History Bulletin, 27, s. 1-22. Rawlings L. 2007, The Ancient Greeks at War, Manchester-New York.

Rees O., Crowley J. 2015, Was There Mental Trauma in Ancient Warfare? PTSD in Ancient Greece, Ancient Warfare, 9, 4.

Rengakos A. 2006, Homer and the Historians: The Influence of Epic Narrative Technique on Hero- dotus and Thucydides, [w:] F. Montanari, A. Rengakos (red.), La poésie épique grecque: méta- morphoses d’un genre littéraire, Geneva, s. 183-209.

de Romilly J. 2005 (1967), Histoire et raison ches Thucydide, Paris.

Rood T. 2007, The Development of the War Monograph, [w:] J. Marincola (red.), A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography, Oxford.

Salazar C. F. 2000, The Treatment of War Wounds in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, Leiden.

Salazar C. F. 2013, Treating the Sick and Wounded, [w:] B. Campbell, L.A. Tritle (red.), The Oxford Handbook of Warfare in the Classical World, Oxford, s. 294-311.

Shay J. 1994, Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character, New York. Schepens G. 1990, Polemic and Methodology in Polybius’ Book XII, [w:] H. Verdin, G. Schepens, E. de Keyser (red.), Purposes of History. Studies in Greek Historiography from the 4th to the 2nd Century B.C., Leuven, s. 39-61.

Sieveking G.E. 1964, Die Funktion geographischer Mitteilungen im Geschichtwerke des Thukidides, Klio, 42, s. 73-179.

Strasburger H. 1972, Homer und die Geschichtsschreibung, Heidelberg.

Stroszeck J. 2004, Greek Trophy Monuments, [w:] S. des Bouvrie (red.), Myth and Symbol II, Symbo- lic Phenomena in Ancient Greek Culture, Bergen, s. 303-331.

Tritle L.A. 2007, Warfare in Herodotus, [w:] C. Dewald, J. Marincola (red.), The Cambridge Compa- nion to Herodotus, Cambridge, s. 209-210.

Tritle L.A. 2014, „Ravished Minds” in the Ancient World, [w:] P. Meineck, D. Konstan (red.), Combat Trauma and the Ancient Greeks, New York, s. 87-104.

Trundle M. 2013, Commemorating Victory in Classical Greece. Why Greek Tropaia? [w:] A. Spar- linger, J. Armstrong (red.), Rituals of Triumph in the Mediterranean World, Leiden, s. 123-138.

Tuplin C.J. 1986, Military Engagements in Xenophon’s Hellenica, [w:] I.S. Moxon, J.D. Smart, A.J. Woodman (red.), Past Perspectives: Studies in Greek and Roman Writings, Cambridge.

Westlake H.D. 1969, Irrelevant Notes and Minor Excursuses in Thucydides, [w:] H.D. Westlake, Essays on the Greek Historians and Greek History, Manchester-New York, s. 1-38.

Wheeler E. 2011, Greece: Mad Hatters and March Hares, [w:] L.I. Brice, J.T. Roberts, Recent Direc- tions in the Military History of the Ancient World, Claremont, s. 53-104.