AbstraktThis position paper addresses three areas in which photographic images are used and abused: Journalism, Advertising, and Public Relations. These areas do not use images for aesthetic purposes only; for these businesses, the images are more than mental impressions. In these three industries, the messages they deliver through the images have little to do with the objective reality. All three use images to deliver an opinion in the name of journalism, distorted needs, benefits, and solutions in advertising, and put spins on facts to present favorable images of their clients in Public Relations. Historically, all three have engaged in the unethical use of the concept “image making” and of manipulation of actual images.
Farid, H. 2009. “Seeing is not believing”. IEEE Spectrum. August. 42-47.
Hanson. R.E. 2017. Mass communication (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kobre, K. 1995. “The long tradition of doctoring photos”. Visual Communication Quarterly 2. 14-15.
Lester, P. 1991. Photojournalism: an ethical approach. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
London, B. and Stone, J. 2012. A short course in photography (8th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
Mindel, D. 2016. “Approaches and considerations regarding image manipulation in digital collections”. IFLA Journal 42, 3. 179-188.
Slater, D. 1995. “Photography and modern vision: the spectacle of ‘natural magic”. In: Jenks, C. (ed.). Visual culture. London: Routledge.
Zhang, M. 2017. “This latest camera sales chart shows the compact camera near death.” Petapixel.com. 3 March, 2017. Available from: https://petapixel.com/2017/03/03/latest-camera-sales-chart-revealsdeath-compact-camera/