Nagłowek strony

Zwolennicy eurosceptycyzmu w Wielkiej Brytanii w latach 1950–2017

Omelian Tarnavskyi



Autor niniejszego artykułu bada kwestię obecności zwolenników eurosceptycyzmu w Wielkiej Brytanii w latach 1950–2017. Autor twierdzi, że pierwszym eurosceptycznym szefem rządu był Winston Churchill i utrzymuje, że eurosceptycyzm nie jest zjawiskiem powiązanym z jakąkolwiek partią polityczną, lecz zjawiskiem o charakterze ponadpartyjnym, nieposiadającym ścisłego związku z konkretną ideologią. Jednocześnie zauważa, że największy odsetek eurosceptyków w Wielkiej Brytanii występuje wśród konserwatystów. W toku rozważań zawartych w artykule, autor identyfikuje głównego teoretyka współczesnego brytyjskiego eurosceptycyzmu, a także wyodrębnia umiarkowany i radykalny wariant eurosceptycyzmu.

Słowa kluczowe

Unia Europejska; eurosceptycyzm; brexit

Pełny tekst:


Adams M., Fabbrini F., Larouche P. (2014), The Constitutionalization of European Budgetary Constraints, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, p. 317.

Alexandre-Collier A. (2015), Euroscepticism under Margaret Thatcher and David Cameron: From Theory to Practice, „Observatoire de la société britannique, La Garde”, no. 17, pp. 1–11.

Baimbridge M., Whyman P., Mullen A. (2016), The 1975 Referendum on Europe – Volume 2: Current Analysis and Lessons for the Future, Andrews UK Limited, Luton, pp. 94–96.

Bennet O. (2016), The Brexit Club: The Inside Story of the Leave Campaign’s Shock Victory, Biteback Publishing, London, pp. 3–5.

Bevins A. (1993), Labour will allow Maastricht treaty Bill to pass, 28.01.1993, Independent,, 15.10.2017.

Bew J. (2016), Was patriotic reformer Clement Attlee on the Labour Party’s left or right?, Socialist Worker, London, no. 2523.

Black J. (2015), The Tory World: Deep History and the Tory Theme in British Foreign Policy, 1679–2014, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, p. 344.

Butler D., Westlake M. (2005), British Politics and European Elections 2004, Springer, London, pp. 84–85.

Cannadine D. (2017), Margaret Thatcher: A Life and Legacy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 97–100.

Churchill D. S. (2002), Draft Resisters, Left Nationalism, and the Politics of Anti-Imperialism, „The Canadian Historical Review”, Toronto, no. 93, pp. 227–260.

Cowley P., Dorey P. (2016), Chaos or Cohesion? Major and the Conservative Parliamentary Party, Springer, London, pp. 9–10.

Crowson N. J. (2007), The Conservative Party and European Integration Since 1945: At the Heart of Europe?, Routledge, London, pp. 55–60.

David Cameron resigns as British PM in wake of Brexit vote (FULL SPEECH) 24.06.2016, Youtube,, 15.10.2017.

EU Referendum: Final Results, 24.06.2016, Bloomberg,, 15.10.2017.

Fisher J., Denver D., Benyon J. (2014), Central Debates in British Politics, Routledge, London, p. 216.

Forster A. (2003), Euroscepticism in Contemporary British Politics: Opposition to Europe in the Conservative and Labour Parties since 1945, Routledge, London, p. 143.

Gabel M. J. (2016), European Union (EU), 21.04.2016, Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago,, 15.10.2017.

Gaitskell H. (1962), Britain and the Common Market, Texts of speeches made at the 1962 Labour Party Conference, Labour Party, London, pp. 3–23.

Gardiner N., McNamara S. (2008), The EU Lisbon Treaty: Gordon Brown Surrenders Britain’s Sovereignty, 07.03.2008, The Haritage Foundation,, 15.10.2017.

Geddes A. (2013), Britain and the European Union, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, p. 239.

Gilman M. (1997), „Social chapter” takes centre stage in the election run-up, 27.02.1997, The Eurofound,, 15.10.2017.

Haycock G. (1993), Britain ratifies Maastricht Treaty, 09.08.1993, UPI,, 15.10.2017.

Heath E. (2011), The Course of My Life: My Autobiography, A&C Black, London, pp. 683–685.

Heathcoat-Amory D. (2012), Confessions of a Eurosceptic, Pen&Sword, Barnsley, pp. 87–88.

Heywood S. (2003), Churchill, Psychology Press, Hove, p. 131.

Holmes M. (1998), The Conservative Party and Europe: From Major to Hague, “The Political Quarterly Publishing”, no. 69, pp. 133–140.

Holmes M. (1999), William Hague’s European Policy, The Bruges Group,, 15.10.2017.

Howard M. (2016), Michael Howard: why it’s time to leave the EU, 26.02.2016, The Spectator,, 15.10.2017.

Hughes L. (2016), A private letter written by Margaret Thatcher reveals she would have campaigned for Brexit, claims Eurosceptic MP, 11.02.2016, The Telegraph, written-by-Margaret-Thatcher-reveals-she-would-have-campaigned-for-Brexit-claims-Eurosceptic-MP.html, 15.10.2017.

Jenkins R. (2011), Clement Attlee, in: Encyclopedia Britannica,, 15.10.2017.

Johnson B. (2015), Churchill Factor: How One Man Changed a History, “Azbuka-Atticus”, Moscow, p. 229.

Kampen I. (2013), Margaret Thatcher No No No, 22.02.2013, Youtube,, 15.10.2017.

Lee S., Beech M. (2009), The Conservatives under David Cameron: Built to Last?, Springer, London, pp. 198–200.

Lourie J. (1997), The Social Chapter, House of Commons Library, London, no. 1, pp. 7–8.

Lynch P. (2012), European Policy, Springer, London, pp. 74–88.

MacShane D. (2015), Brexit: How Britain Left Europe, I. B. Tauris, London–New York, pp. 108.

Major J. (2010), John Major: The Autobiography, HarperCollins Publishers, London, p. 90.

Muz J., Brexit – David Cameron thoughts on EU in 2009, 20.05.2016, Youtube,, 15.10.2017.

Nechaiuk I. (2013), “Euroscepticism” in the process of European integration (second half of the XX – beginning of the XXI century), Kyiv, p. 31.

Palmer J. (1988), September 21 1988: Thatcher sets face against united Europe, 21.09.1988, “The Guardian”,, 15.10.2017.

Pedler J. (2015), A Word Before Leaving: A Former Diplomat’s Weltanschauung, Troubador Publishing Ltd, Leicester, pp. 55–61.

Portillo M. (2013), Britain had to change, Margaret Thatcher had the courage to make it happen, 14.04.2013, “The Guardian”,, 15.10.2017.

Race R. (2015), Multiculturalism and Education, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, p. 129.

Redwood J. (1997), Our Currency, Our Country: Dangers of European Monetary Union, Penguin Books Ltd, London, p. 224.

Redwood J. (1999), The Death of Britain?, Springer, London, p. 201.

Redwood J. (2001), Just Say No!: 100 Arguments Against the Euro, Politico’s Publishing Ltd, London, p. 256.

Rennie D. (2011), David Cameron: we Eurosceptics are only trying to help, 14.11.2011, “The Economist”,, 15.10.2017.

Sabin L. (2015), David Cameron vows earlier EU referendum if Tories win election, 05.01.2015, „Independent”, help-9957090.html, 15.10.2017.

Sabov A. (1989), Lady with Downing Street, 10, International Relations, Moscow, p. 8–9.

Summers D. (2009), David Cameron admits Lisbon treaty referendum campaign is over, 04.11.2009, „The Guardian”,, 15.10.2017.

Thatcher M. (1992), Article for The European (Maastricht), 08.10.1992, Thatcher Archive,, 15.10.2017.

Thatcher M. (1988), Speech to the College of Europe (“The Bruges Speech”), 20.09.1988, Thatcher Archive,, 15.10.2017.

Turner J. (2000), The Tories and Europe, Manchester University Press, Manchester, p. 221.

Watson I. (2013), David Cameron promises in/out referendum on EU, 23.01.2013, BBC,, 15.10.2017.

Watts D. (2012), British Government and Politics: A Comparative Guide: A Comparative Guide, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, p. 242.

Watts D., Pilkington C. (2005), Britain in the European Union Today, Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp. 17–24.

Wayne J. (2002), Do not underestimate the determination of a quiet man, 11.10.2002, „The Guardian”,, 15.10.2017.

Wester R. (1992), The United Kingdom and the European Political Union, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, p. 193.

Williams R. (1993), Treaty Tightrope: The Social Chapter: what it is and why Conservatives hate it, „Independent”, 1486124.html.

PRESSto2AMUR - export


Abstrakt - 12 PDF (English) - 6



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018