Wsparcie nowych mediów na Ukrainie w ramach polskiego programu pomocy rozwojowej
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

wspieranie mediów
nowe media
współpraca rozwojowa
Ukraina
Polska

Jak cytować

Galus, A., & Pospieszna, P. (2017). Wsparcie nowych mediów na Ukrainie w ramach polskiego programu pomocy rozwojowej. Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne, (2), 169–200. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssp.2017.2.9

Abstrakt

W efekcie stosunkowo udanej transformacji systemowej niektóre młode, demokratyczne kraje, które jeszcze w latach 80-tych i 90-tych otrzymywały pomoc demokratyzacyjną, zaangażowały się w charakterze nowych donatorów we wspieranie pro-demokratycznych przemian w mniej rozwiniętych państwach. Relacje pomiędzy post-komunistycznymi donatorami a odbiorcami pomocy można obserwować na przykładzie współpracy rozwojowej Polski i Ukrainy. Artykuł koncentruje się na kwestii polskiego wsparcia rozwojowego, udzielanego Ukrainie w latach 2007–2017 w ramach Polskiej Pomocy. Niniejsza praca ma za zadanie udzielić odpowiedzi na pytania o to czy polskie, rządowe wsparcie dla ukraińskich mediów jest kontynuowane pomimo zmiany partii rządzącej oraz czy polskie organizacje pozarządowe, które realizują pomoc rozwojową w oparciu o finansowanie Ministerstwa Spraw Zagranicznych RP, dopasowują swoje projekty do aktualnych potrzeb beneficjentów wsparcia i aktualnej sytuacji na Ukrainie. Autorki stawiają sobie jako cel zwrócenie uwagi na związki pomiędzy zaangażowaniem państw zewnętrznych i istnieniem niezależnych mediów a procesami demokratyzacji i wysiłkami, jakie podejmowane są przez tzw. nowych donatorów w państwach partnerskich.

https://doi.org/10.14746/ssp.2017.2.9
PDF

Bibliografia

Aday S., Farrell H., Lynch M., Sides J., Kelly J., Zuckerman E. (2010), Blogs and Bullets: New Media in Contentious Politics, United States Institute of Peace, Washington.

Alesina A., Dollar D. (2000), Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?, “Journal of Economic Growth”, no. 5, pp. 33–63.

Arafa M. (2015), Facebook to Mobilize, Twitter to Coordinate Protests, and YouTube to Tell the World: New Media, Cyberactivism, and the Arab Spring, “Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective Volume”, no. 10 (1), pp. 73–102.

Armbrust W. (2007), New Media and Old Agendas: The Internet in the Middle East and Middle Eastern Studies, “International Journal of Middle East Studies”, no. 39 (4), pp. 531–533.

Azpuru D., Finkel S. E., Pérez-Liñán A., Seligson M. A. (2008), Trends in Democracy Assistance: What Has the United States Been Doing?, “Journal of Democracy”, no. 19 (2), pp. 150–159.

Baran S. J., Davis D. K. (2007), Teorie komunikowania masowego, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków.

Bastos M. T., Mercea D., Charpentier A. (2015), Tents, tweets, and events: The interplay between ongoing protests and social media, “Journal of Communication”, no. 65 (2), pp. 320–350.

Beacháin D. Ó., Polese A. (eds.) (2010), The Colour Revolutions in the Former Soviet Republics. Successes and Failures, Routledge, London–New York.

Beichelt T., Hahn-Fuhr I., Schimmelfenning F., Worschech S. (Eds.) (2014), Civil Society and Democracy Promotion, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke–New York.

Bohdanova T. (2014), Unexpected revolution: the role of social media in Ukraine’s Euromaidan uprising, “European View”, no. 13 (1), pp. 133–142.

Breuer A. (2012), The Role of Social Media in Mobilizing Political Protest: Evidence from the Tunisian Revolution. The Social-Economic Situation of Middle East Youth, Deutsche Nationalbibliografie, Bonn.

Brinks D., Coppedge M. (2006), Diffusion Is No Illusion: Neighbor Emulation in the Third Wave of Democracy, “Comparative Political Studies”, no. 39 (4), pp. 463–489.

Bunce V., Wolchik S. (2006), International Diffusion and Postcommunist Electoral Revolutions, “Communist and Post-Communist Studies”, no. 39 (3), pp. 283–304.

Burnell P. (2000), Democracy Assistance: International Co-operation for Democratization, Frank Cass, London–Portland.

Carothers T. (1999), Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington.

Carothers T. (2004), Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington.

Chimiak G. (2016), The Growth of Non-Governmental Development Organisations in Poland and Their Cooperation with Polish Aid, IFiS PAN, Warsaw.

Chyliński M., Russ-Mohl S. (2008), Dziennikarstwo, Grupa Wydawnicza Polskapresse, Warsaw.

Cornell S., Thielen T. (2006), Herzegovina Assessment of Usaid/Bosnia and Herzegovina Media Interventions, United States Agency for International Development, Washington, http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadh275.pdf.

Cottle S. (2011), Media and the Arab Uprisings of 2011, “Journalism”, no. 12 (5), pp. 531–541.

Diamond L. (1999), Developing Democracy. Toward Consolidation, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore–London.

Diamond L. (2012), Liberation Technology, in: Liberation technology. Social Media and the Struggle for Democracy, eds. L. Diamond, M. F. Plattner, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 5–17.

Doliwa U. (2012), Dziennikarstwo obywatelskie, czyli jakie?, “Nowe Media”, no. 3, pp. 81–100.

Downing J. (1996), Internationalizing Media Theory: Transition, Power, Culture, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Drążkiewicz-Grodzicka E. (2013), From a Recipient to Donor – the Case of Polish

Developmental Cooperation, “Human Organization”, no. 72 (1), pp. 65–75.

Dyczok M. (2009), Do the Media Matter? Focus on Ukraine, in: Media, Democracy and Freedom: the Post-Communist Experience, eds. M. Dyczok, O. Gaman-Golutvina, Peter Lang, Bern, http://shron.chtyvo.org.ua/Marta_Dyczok/Do_the_Media_Matter7_Focus_on_Ukraine__en.pdf.

El-Nawawy M., Khamis S. (2012), Political Activism 2.0: Comparing the Role of Social Media in Egypt’s “Facebook Revolution” and Iran’s “Twitter Uprising”, “CyberOrient”, no. 6 (1), http://www.cyberorient.net/article.do?articleId=7439.

Eltantawy N., Wiest J. B. (2011), Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory, “International Journal of Communication”, no. 5, pp. 1207–1224.

Ethier D. (2003), Is Democracy Promotion Effective? Comparing Conditionality and Incentives, “Democratization”, no. 10 (1), pp. 99–120.

Etling B., Roberts H., Faris R. (2014), Blogs as an Alternative Public Sphere: The Role of Blogs, Mainstream Media, and TV in Russia’s Media Ecology, The Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University.

FH. (2016), Freedom in the World 2016, Freedom House.

Gilboa E. (2005), The CNN Effect: The Search for a Communication Theory of International Relations, “Political Communication”, no. 22 (1), pp. 27–44.

Gillmor D. (2006), We the Media. Grassroots Journalism By the People, For the People, O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol.

Gunther R., Diamandouros N. P., Puhle H.-J. (1995), The Politics of Democratic Consolidation: Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore–London.

Higgins D. (2014), The Western Way? Democracy and the Media Assistance Model, “Global Media Journal”, no. 4 (2), pp. 1–15.

Horký-Hlucháň O., Lightfoot S. (eds.) (2015), Development Cooperation of the “New” EU Member States: Beyond Europeanization, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Howard P. N., Hussain M. M. (2011), The Role of Digital Media, “Journal of Democracy”, no. 22 (3), pp. 35–48.

Howard R. (2003), International Media Assistance: A Review of Donor Activities and Lessons Learned (No. Working Paper 19), Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendael” Conflict Research Unit (CRU), Hague, https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20030600_cru_working_paper_19.pdf.

Hume E. (2011), Caught in the Middle: Central and Eastern European Journalism at a Crossroads, National Endowment for Democracy, Washington, http://ellenhume.com/wp-content/uploads/CIMA-Central_and_Eastern_Europe-Report_3.pdf.

Huntington S. P. (1991), Democracy’s Third Wave, “Journal of Democracy”, no. 2 (2), pp. 12–34.

Jakubowicz K., Sükösd M. (2008), Finding the right place on the map: Central and Eastern European media change in a global perspective, Intellect Books, Bristol.

Jebril N., Stetka V., Loveless M. (2013), Media and Democratisation: What is Known about the Role of Mass Media in Transitions to Democracy, University of Oxford, https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Mediaand-Democratisation_0.pdf.

Jonavicius L. (2008), The Democracy Promotion Policies of Central and Eastern European States, FRIDE, http://fride.org/download/wp55_central_estearn_eu_eng_mar08.pdf.

Kaplan A. M., Haenlein M. (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media, “Business Horizons”, no. 53 (1), pp. 59–68.

Karlowicz I. (2003), The Difficult Birth of the Fourth Estate: Media Development and Democracy Assistance in the Post-Conflict Balkans, http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00002252/01/media_5_karlowicz.pdf.

Kobylińska A., Makowski G., Solon-Lipiński M. (eds.) (2012), Mechanizmy przeciwdziałania korupcji w Polsce. Raport z monitoringu, Instytut Spraw Publicznych, Warszawa, http://www.isp.org.pl/uploads/filemanager/Mechanizmyprzeciwdziaaniakorupcji.PDF.

Kucharczyk J., Lovitt J. (eds.) (2007), Democracy’s New Champions. European Democracy Assistance after EU Enlargement, EUROPEUM Institute for European Policy, Praha.

Kudlenko A. (2015), From Colour Revolutions to the Arab Spring: The Role of Civil Society in Democracy Building and Transition Processes, “Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe”, no. 23 (2–3), pp. 167–179.

Kumar K. (2006), Promoting Independent Media: Strategies for Democracy Assistance, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.

Kumar K. (2009), One Size Does Not Fit All. Objectives and Priority Areas for Media Assistance in Different Societies, Center for International Media Assistance, Washington.

Kunczik M., Zipfel A. (2000), Wprowadzenie do nauki o dziennikarstwie i komunikowaniu, Wydawnictwo SCHOLAR, Warszawa.

Kyriakopoulou K. (2011), Authoritarian states and internet social media: Instruments of democratisation or instruments of control?, “Human Affairs”, no. 21 (1), pp. 18–26.

Lexmann M. (2014), Let’s not talk about transition sharing, let’s do it. The potential of the Central and Eastern EU Member States in accelerating democracy support and transition in EU’s neighbourhood, in: International Conference Booklet Development and Democracy Development Ecosystems in V4: the New Role for Civil Society Organisations and Business Beyond 2015, Pontis Foudantion, Bratislava, http://www.nadaciapontis.sk/data/files/D&D_zbornik_BOOK_WEB.pdf.

Lister M., Dovey J., Giddins S., Grant I., Kelly K. (2009), New media: a critical introduction (Second edi), Routledge, Abingdon.

Lopes A. R. (2014), The Impact of Social Media on Social Movements: The New Opportunity and Mobilizing Structure, https://www.creighton.edu/fileadmin/user/CCAS/departments/PoliticalScience/Journal_of_Political_Research_JPR_/2014_JSP_papers/Lopes_JPR.pdf.

Lynch M. (2015), How the Media Trashed the Transitions to Democracy, “Journal of Democracy”, no. 26 (4), pp. 90–99.

Lynch M., Freelon D., Aday S. (2016), How Social Media Undermines Transitions to Democracy, PeaceTech Lab, Washington, http://www.peacetechlab.org/blogs-bullets-iv.

Lysenko V. V., Desouza K. C. (2012), Moldova’s Internet Revolution: Analyzing the Role of Technologies in Various Phases of the Confrontation, “Technological Forecasting and Social Change”, no. 79 (2), pp. 341–361.

Manovich L. (2001), The Language of New Media, The MIT PRess, Massachusetts.

McCombs M. (2014), Setting the Agenda. The Mass Media and Public Opinion, Polity Press, Cambridge–Malden.

McConnell P. J., Becker L. B. (2002), The Role of the Media in Democratization (Paper presented to the Political Communication Section of the International Association for Media and Communication Research at the Barcelona Conference), http://www.grady.uga.edu/coxcenter/activities/act_2001_to_2002/materials01-02/democratizationiamcrjuly2002.pdfm.

McMahon P. (2004), Building Civil Societies in East Central Europe: The Effect of American Non-governmental Organizations on Women’s Groups, in: Civil Society in Democratization, eds. P. J. Burnell, P. Calvert, Routledge, New York.

McNair B. (1998), Wprowadzenie do komunikowania politycznego, Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Nauk Humanistycznych i Dziennikarstwa, Poznań.

McQuail D. (2010), McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory, SAGE Publications, London.

Mendelson S. E. (2001), Democracy Assistance and Political Transition in Russia, “International Security”, no. 25 (4), pp. 68–106.

Morozov E. (2011), The Net Delusion. The Dark Side of Internet Freedom, vol. 9, PublicAffairs, New York, http://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592711004026.

Morozov E. (2012), Whither Internet Control?, in: Liberation Technology: Social Media and the Struggle for Democracy, eds. L. Diamond, M. F. Plattner, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Myers M. (2009), Funding for Media Development by Major Donors Outside the United States, National Endowment for Democracy, New York, http://cima.ned.org/sites/default/files/CIMA-Non-US_Funding_of_Media_Development.pdf.

Nierenberg B. (2007), Publiczne przedsiębiorstwo medialne. Determinanty, systemy, modele, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków.

Obydenkova A. (2008), Regime transition in the regions of Russia: The freedom of mass media: Transnational impact on sub-national democratization?, “European Journal of Political Research”, no. 47 (2), pp. 221–246.

Olorunnisola A. A., Martin B. L. (2013), Influences of Media on Social Movements: Problematizing Hyperbolic Inferences about Impacts, “Telematics and Informatics”, no. 30 (3), pp. 275–288.

Olsen G. R. (2000), Promotion of Democracy as a Foreign Policy Instrument of “Europe”: Limits to International Idealism, “Democratization”, no. 7 (2), pp. 142–167.

Onuch O. (2015), EuroMaidan Protests in Ukraine: Social Media Versus Social Networks, “Problems of Post-Communism”, no. 62, pp. 217–235.

Pearce K. E., Kendzior S. (2012), Networked Authoritarianism and Social Media in Azerbaijan, “Journal of Communication”, no. 62, pp. 283–298.

Petrova T. (2014a), From Solidarity to Geopolitics. Support for Democracy among Postcommunist States, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Petrova T. (2014b), Making Transitional Democracy and Human Rights Activism Work? On the Trade-Offs of Eastern EU Support for Civil Society Development Abroad, in: Civil Society and Democracy promotion, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke–New York, pp. 110–133.

Pospieszna P. (2014), Democracy Assistance from the Third Wave. Polish Engagement in Belarus and Ukraine, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.

Pospieszna P. (2016a), Pomoc demokratyzacyjna polskich organizacji pozarządowych skierowana do Białorusi i Ukrainy: przesłanki oraz różne formy wsparcia, “Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne”, no. 3, pp. 236–266.

Pospieszna P. (2016), Współpraca rozwojowa w zakresie promowania dobrego rządzenia i rozwoju demokracji przez kraje Grupy Wyszehradzkiej, in: Tożsamość i efektywność: w poszukiwaniu mechanizmów zrównoważonego rozwoju, eds. K. Jarecka Stępień, A. Surdej, Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, Toruń, pp. 89–110.

Rhodes A. (2007), Ten Years of Media Support To the Balkans: An Assessment, Media Task Force of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, Amsterdam, http://www.medienhilfe.ch/fileadmin/media/images/dossier/mediasupport_Balkan.pdf.

Richter J. (2002), Promoting Civil Society? Democracy Assistance and Russian Women’s Organizations, “Problems of Post-Communism”, no. 49 (1), pp. 30–41.

Robertson A. (2013), Connecting in Crisis: “Old” and “New” Media and the Arab Spring, “The International Journal of Press/Politics”, no. 18 (3), pp. 325–341.

Robertson A. (2015), What’s Going on? Making Sense of the Role of the Media in the Arab Uprisings, “Sociology Compass”, no. 9 (7), pp. 531–541, http://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12278.

Rotham P. (2015), The Politics of Media Development. The Importance of Engaging Government and Civil Society, Center for International Media Assistance, Washington.

Sandoval-Almazan R., Ramon Gil-Garcia J. (2014), Towards cyberactivism 2.0? Understanding the use of social media and other information technologies for political activism and social movements, “Government Information Quarterly”, no. 31 (3), pp. 365–378.

Sasińska-Klas T. (1994), The Transition of Mass Media in Poland: The Road to Liberalization, “The Electronic Journal of Communication”, no. 4 (1).

Shirky C. (2009), Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations, Penguin Books, London, http://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp09X420437.

Shirky C. (2011), The Political Power of Social Media, “Foreign Affairs”, no. 90 (1), pp. 28–41.

Shveda Y., Park J. H. (2016), Ukraine’s revolution of dignity: The dynamics of Euromaidan, “Journal of Eurasian Studies”, no. 7 (1), pp. 85–91.

Siegel D., Yancey J. (1992), The Rebirth of Civil Society: The Development of the Nonprofit Sector in East Central Europe and the Role of Western Assistance, The Rockefeller Brothers Fund, New York.

Sobczak J. (2007), Wolność prasy. Złudzenia – oczekiwania – rzeczywistość, in: Media w Polsce. Pierwsza władza IV RP?, ed. M. Sokołowski, Wydawnictwo Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warszawa, pp. 303–334.

Soldatov A., Borogan I. (2015), The Red Web: The Struggle Between Russia’s Digital Dictators and the New Online Revolutionaries, PublicAffairs, New York.

Szent-Iványi B. (2014), The EU’s Support for Democratic Governance in the Eastern Neighbourhood: The Role of Transition Experience from the New Member

States, “Europe-Asia Studies”, no. 66 (7), pp. 1102–1121.

Szent-Iványi B., Lightfoot S. (2015), Central and Eastern European transition experience: a depoliticisation of democracy aid?, in: Democratization in EU foreign policy: new member states as drivers of democracy promotion, eds. B. Berti, K. Mikulova, N. Popescu, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 37–60.

The Commonwealth (2016), Global Youth Development Index and Report 2016, London,http://cmydiprod.uksouth.cloudapp.azure.com/sites/default/files/2016-10/2016GlobalYouthDevelopmentIndexandReport.pdf.

Tsetsura K. (2015), Ukrainian NGOs as Opinion Makers: How Media Organizations Communicate about Progress in New Democracy with Western Donors, “Trípodos”, no. 37, pp. 91–110.

Tsetsura K., Grynko A., Klyueva A. (2011), The Media Map Project. Ukraine. Case Study on Donor Support to Independent Media, 1990–2010, Internews, http://www.mediamapresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Ukraine.pdf.

Ullah M. S. (2009), Free Media, Democracy and Democratisation: Experiences from Developing Countries, “Journal of Global Communication”, no. 2 (2), pp. 343–351.

Voltmer K. (2013), The Media in Transitional Democracies, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Yesayan T. (2014), Social Networking: A Guide to Strengthening Civil Society Through Social Media, United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government,https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/SMGuide4CSO.pdf.

Youngs R. (2008), Trends in Democracy Assistance. What has Europe Been Doing?, “Journal of Democracy”, no. 19 (2), pp. 160–169, http://fride.org/download/ART_EU_Democracy_Aid_EN_abr08.pdf.

Zaliznyak J. (2014), The New Media of Euromaidan: Online Instruments to Defend Democracy in Ukraine, in: Open Europe: Cultural Dialogue Across Borders, ed. W. Piątkowska-Stepaniak, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Opolskiego, Opole, pp. 179–190.

Teksty opublikowane na łamach czasopisma "Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne" i udostępniane w formacie PDF objęte są licencją CC BY 4.0 (Creative Commons - Uznanie autorstwa). Kopiowanie i rozpowszechnianie dozwolone jest pod warunkiem uznania autorstwa.

 

 

Pobrania

Brak dostępnych danych do wyświetlenia.