Life-Cycle Assessment on Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery in Hybrid Vehicles: Comparison between Regenerated and New Battery
PDF (English)

Słowa kluczowe

Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery, Hybrid Vehicle, Reuse and Recycling, Life Cycle Assessment, Efficient use of Resources

Jak cytować

Wang, S. ., & Yu, . J. (2020). Life-Cycle Assessment on Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery in Hybrid Vehicles: Comparison between Regenerated and New Battery: Ocena cyklu życia akumulatora niklowo-wodorkowego w pojazdach hybrydowych: porównanie akumulatora regenerowanego i nowego . Investigationes Linguisticae, (43), 57–79.


To reduce air pollution and avoid petroleum exhaustion problem, many advanced countries, especially Japan installed Hybrid Vehicles (HV). As the use of HV popularizes around the world, there will be a huge amount of End-of-Life HV in the near future, and the proper treatment of these End-of-Life HVs, especially the waste NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) batteries, will become a serious problem. Currently, the recycling of NiMH battery is gaining substantial attention. However, instead of recycling waste NiMH batteries directly, regenerating and reusing a used NiMH battery for a secondhand HV will largely reduce waste battery generation and demand for new NiMH battery. However, the environmental impact of regenerating and reusing a waste NiMH battery was not clear and has not been compared with the situation when using a brand-new NiMH battery. The purpose of this research is to compare the environmental performance (CO2 emission) of regenerated NiMH battery and brand-new NiMH battery in an HV from their production to usage stage and to discuss the validity of using a regenerated NiMH in Japan and in other countries using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. This research analyzed the composition of a NiMH battery and the CO2 emission during the manufacture, transportation, regeneration and usage process of a NiMH battery. The data used in this research was collected from reports and data published by the government of Japan, vehicle makers and previous studies. Original field survey and interview research on battery regeneration operators were also performed. The result showed that there is not a big difference in environmental effect. Moreover, by doing so, a huge amount of resource will be saved from battery manufacturing process while reducing waste generation. It is recommended that waste NiMH battery should be regenerated and reused in HV instead of being recycled directly in the future.
PDF (English)


Automobile Inspection & Registration Information Association of Japan. 2016. Life span transition for different kinds of vehicles.

Automobile Inspection & Registration Information Association. 2017.Vehicle ownership in 2016.

CHUO DENKI KOGYO CO., LTD, “Company history”,

E-fuel consumption, “TOYOTA Prius”, accessed October 15, 2017,

Ebin B., Petranikova M., Ekberg C. 2018. Physical Separation, Mechanical Enrichment and Recycling-oriented Characterization of Spent NiMH Batteries. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol.20, no. 4, pp. 2018-2027.

Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan. 2017. CO2 emission from electricity generation,

Hu M., Ren F., Lei L., Lu X. 2013. Separation of Cobalt from Ni (OH)(2) Positive Materials by a Reduction and Dissolution Process in Alkali Solution. Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 120, no.13, pp. 198-205.

Ikoma M., Fukuda H. 1997. New technology for EV Battery. The Journal of The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, vol. 117, no. 1, p.24.

Ikeya T., Sawada N., Murakami J., Kobayashi K., Hattori M., Murotani N., Ujiie S., Kajiyama K., Nasu H., Narisoko H., Tomaki Y., Adachi K., Mita Y., Ishihara K. 2002. Multi-step Constant-current Charging Method for an Electric Vehicle Nickel/Metal Hydride Battery with High-energy Efficiency and Long Cycle Life. Journal of Power Resources, vol. 105, no. 1, p.10.

Japan Automobile Federation. 2013. What is 10.5 mode and JC08 mode,

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2016. Vehicle market trend for 2015,

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2018. Situation of End-of-Life Next-Generation Vehicles’ treatment and recycling, p. 5,

Japan Iron and Steel Federation. 2013. Effort on global warming countermeasure, performance reporting on low-carbon society implementation plan,

Japanese Ministry of the Environment. 2001. Research for predicting the effect of material technology conversion on global environment prevention,

Kaziyama K, Okajima K, Uchiyama Y. 2006. Energy and Environmental Analysis of Batteries for Electric Load Leveling Using LCA Method. Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan, vol.2, no. 4, pp. 379-385.

Korkmaz K., Alemrajabi M., Rasmuson A.,Forsberg K. 2018. Sustainable Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Valuable Elements from Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride HEV Batteries. Metals, vol.8, no. 12, pp.1-17. DOI: 10.3390/met8121062.

Larsson K., Ekberg C., Ødegaard-Jensen A. 2013. Dissolution and Characterization of HEV NiMH Batteries. Waste Management, vol. 33, no. 3, pp.689-698.

Life Cycle Assessment Society of Japan, “LCA data base”,

Matsuto T., Kakuta Y., Ishizaka K. 2007. Life-Cycle Assessment. Tanaka M (Ed.), Basic Knowledge of Evaluation Technique for Material- Cycle Society. Tokyo: Gihodo Shuppan Press. pp.103-128.

Mitsui Mining & Smelting. 2012. Activities to improve the environment,

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2015. Situation for Next-Generation Vehicle,

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. 2008. Research on material recycling of large rechargeable battery in Hokkaido,

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, a. 2016. Guideline to calculate CO2 emission in transportation sector,

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, b. 2016. Fuel consumption of Vehicle,

Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan. 2012. Guidebook for calculating Global warming prevention projects (first version),

Ministry of Finance. 2016. Situation on Potassium hydroxide business,

Narita N., Sagisaka M., Inaba A. 2001. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of CO2 Emission from Electrolytic Copper Production System. Shigen-to-Sozai, vol.117, no.1, pp.49-55. DOI: 10.2473/shigentosozai.117.49.

Nickel Institute. 2010. Green Scrap: Making New Stainless Steel,

Nittetsu technology. 2017. “Hydrogen absorbing alloy”,

Ohnishi A., Miyazawa K. 2014. Recovery of Rare Metals from Waste Water and Sludge by Gas-Sensor-Controlled Sulfide Method. Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment, vol.37 (A), no.2, pp. 47-51.

Ortego A., Valero A., Valero A., Restrepo E. 2018. Vehicles and Critical Raw Materials: A Sustainability Assessment Using Thermodynamic Rarity. Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1005-1015.

Oshitani M. 2008. Material Technologies for NiMH Battery in EV/HEV. Sato N, Sakai T (Ed.) Development of large-scale rechargeable batteries for vehicles. Tokyo: CMC Press. p. 38.

Pacific Industrial CO., Ltd, “Accelerate in making NiMH battery for HV”,

Primeearth EV Energy CO., Ltd, “Products introduction”,

Richa K., Babbitt C.W., Nenadi N.G., Gaustad G. 2017. Environmental Trade-offs Across Cascading Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycles. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 66–81. doi: 10.1007/s11367-015-0942-3.

Rantik M. 1999. Life Cycle Assessment of Five Batteries for Electric Vehicles under Different Charging Regimes. Chalmers University of Technology, pp.1-53.

Sakai T. 2008. Lifecycle Design for NiMH Battery. Sato N, Sakai T (Ed.) Development of large-scale rechargeable batteries for vehicles. Tokyo: CMC press. p.57.

Sumitomo Metal Mining CO., Ltd., “Introduction of plant base, Isouracho plant”,

Tenmaya Y. 2008. Recycling of NiMH in HV. Halada K., Nakamura T (Ed.) Technology of alternatives and recycling of rare metals. Tokyo: CMC Pressed. pp.315-325. ISBN-10: 4781310117

TOYOTA. 2017. “Sales of TOYOTA Hybrid Vehicle surpassed 10 million around the world”,

WU B Offer GJ. 2017. Environmental Impact of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. Harrison RM., Hester RE (Ed.) Environmental Impacts of Road Vehicles: Past, Present and Future. London: The Royal Society of Chemistry Press. pp.133-156.

Wu M., Hyodo T. 2015. A Study on Mileage of Gasoline Vehicle and Diesel Vehicle Based on Fuel Consumption Survey by MLIT. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management), vol.71, no.2, p. 49.

Yano Research Institute. 2015. Survey on Base of manufacturing technology (Circulation of Metal resources from End-of-Life vehicles).

Yao Y., Farac N.F, Azimi G. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Nickel Metal Hydride Battery. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, vol.6, no.1, pp. 1417-1426,

Yano J., Xu G., Watanabe N., Sakai S. 2016. Resource Potential of ELV and System Evaluation on Environmental Burden. Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan,


Brak dostępnych danych do wyświetlenia.