Analysis of an invented writing system for the Shanghainese language

Main Article Content

Logan Simpson

Abstrakt

The present study uses qualitative methods to analyze and restore an invented missionary writing system for the Shanghainese language, and uses the restoration to check for historical sound change. The project consists of two parts: the analysis and restoration of the orthography and the confirmation of historical sound changes in Shanghainese. The restoration of the writing system provides all symbols with equivalent International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols. Following the restoration to IPA is an explanation of the rules for combining initial and final symbols to form a single character, as well as rules for tonal distinction. The analysis of the restored orthography compares its development with the academic criteria for orthography development, and finds that it is a sound writing system. The evaluation also reviews the sociolinguistic criteria crucial for orthography acceptance, and shows that the writing system does not meet these criteria in present day Shanghai. The results of the check for historical sound change confirm that many of the sounds not found in present day Shanghainese existed in this writing system. The phones found in this writing system are able to confirm the disappearance or merger of various sounds in Shanghainese since the mid 19th century. Overall, the study shows that the invented writing system is sound, but would not be accepted in Shanghai today. However, it should be reviewed by other linguists as having the possibility to represent other languages.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Simpson , L. (2020). Analysis of an invented writing system for the Shanghainese language. Investigationes Linguisticae, (44), 22-42. https://doi.org/10.14746/il.2020.44.3
Dział
Językoznawstwo ogólne

Bibliografia

  1. Adams, L., 2014. Case Studies of Orthography Decision Making in Mainland Southeast Asia. In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Dallas, TX: SIL International Publications, pp. 231–249.
  2. Bostick, G.P., 1892. Two Long and Useful Lives In China Dr. T. P. and Mrs. M. F. Crawford, Tung Chow: Baptist and Reflector. Available at: baptisthistoryhomepage.com.
  3. Cahill, M., 2014. Non-Linguistic Factors in Orthographies. In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Chicago: SIL International Publications, pp. 9–25.
  4. Campbell, G.L. & Moseley, C., 2012. The Routledge handbook of scripts and alphabets2nd ed., London: Routledge.
  5. Chao, Y.R., 1928. Studies in the modern Wu-dialects, Peking.
  6. Chen, P., 1994. Four Projected Functions of New Writing Systems for Chinese. Anthropological Linguistics, 36(3), pp.366–381.
  7. Chen, P., 2007. Modern Chinese: history and sociolinguistics, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
  8. Chen, Z., 2003. Studies on Dialects in the Shanghai Area their phonological systems and historical developments, München: Lüders, Ulrich.
  9. Anon, Chinese, Wu. Ethnologue. Available at: https://www.ethnologue.com/language/wuu [Accessed August 27, 2018].
  10. Crawford, T.P., 1888. A System of Phonetic Symbols for Writing the Dialects of China. The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, 10(3), pp.101–110. Available at: http://archive.org/stream/chineserecorder19lodwuoft#page/108/mode/1up [Accessed March 12, 2018].
  11. Anon, Dialect of Shanghai, China. (n.d.). Available at: https://digital.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/inquire/Discover/Search/#/?p=c35,tshanghai,rsrs0,rsps10,fasoox:sort^asc,scids,pid99ee32d6-e348-47f6-b697-ceabf4b07fc8,vi [Accessed August 25, 2018].
  12. Duanmu, S., 1994. Syllabic weight and syllabic duration: a correlation between phonology and phonetics. Phonology, 11(01), pp.1–24.
  13. Edkins, J., 1868. A grammar of colloquial Chinese: as exhibited in the Shanghai dialect, Shanghai: London Mission P.
  14. Foster, L.S., 1909. Fifty years in China an eventful memoir of Tarleton Perry Crawford, D.D., Nashville, TN: Bayless Pullen.
  15. Gaur, A., 1985. A history of writing, New York: Scribner.
  16. Heylen, A., 2001. Dutch Language Policy and Early Formosan Literacy (1624-1662). In Missionary Approaches and Linguistics in Mainland China and Taiwan. Leuven: Verbiest Foundation and Leuven University Press, pp. 199–251.
  17. Hinton, L., 2014. Orthography Wars. In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Chicago: SIL International Publications, pp. 139–168.
  18. Hovdhaugen, E., 1996. - and the word was God: missionary linguistics and missionary grammar, Münster: Nodus Publikationen.
  19. Karan, E., 2014. Standardization: What's the Hurry? In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Chicago: SIL International Publications, pp. 107–138.
  20. Anon, Lisu (LI-SU). Lao alphabet, pronunciation and language. Available at: https://www.omniglot.com/writing/fraser.htm [Accessed June 27, 2018].
  21. Liu, G.-Q., 2012. Social identity and sound change. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 35(2), pp.203–214.
  22. Lojenga, C.K., 2014. Orthography and Tone: A Tone-System Typology with Implications for Orthography Development . In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Chicago: SIL International Publications, pp. 49–72.
  23. Macgowan, J., 1862. A collection of phrases in the Shanghai dialect; systematically arranged, Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press.
  24. Munro, P., 2014. Breaking Rules for Orthography Development. In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Chicago: SIL International Publications, pp. 169–189.
  25. Nida, E.A., 1964. What is phonemics. In Orthography Studies, articles on new writing systems. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, pp. 22–30.
  26. Nowak, E., 1996. Considering the Status of Empirical Research in Linguistics. Approaches and Attitudes since 1800. In and the Word was God : missionary linguistics and missionary grammar. Munster: Nodus Publikationen, pp. 23–44.
  27. Nyok, A.V. & Tarrant, M.M., 1921. Zan Mei Shi, Shanghai: Phonetic Committee Southern Methodist Mission.
  28. Pan, H., 2016. An Overview of Chinese Language Law and Regulation. Chinese Law & Government, 48(4), pp.271–274.
  29. Anon, Pollard Script. Lao alphabet, pronunciation and language. Available at: https://www.omniglot.com/writing/pollardmiao.htm [Accessed June 27, 2018].
  30. Postal, P.M., 1970. Aspects of Phonological Theory. Language, 46(1), p.116.
  31. Pullum, G.K. & Ladusaw, W.A., 1996. Phonetic symbol guide2nd ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  32. Qian, N., 1997. A Grammar of Shanghainese, Shanghai: Shanghai People's Press.
  33. Sassoon, R., 2004. The acquisition of a second writing system, Bristol: Intellect.
  34. Shen, Q., 2016. Saving Shanghai Dialect: A Case for Bottom-Up Language Planning in China. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(5-6), pp.713–722.
  35. Smalley, W.A., 1959. How Shall I Write This Language? The Bible Translator, 10(2), pp.49–69.
  36. Smalley, W.A., 1964. Orthography studies: articles on new writing systems, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
  37. Snider, K., 2014. Orthography and Phonological Depth. In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Chicago: SIL International Publications, pp. 27–48.
  38. Anon, 2010. Suprasegmental. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  39. Tang, Z., 2000. Practical Shanghainese, Shanghai: Shanghai Century Publishing & Shanghai Education Publishing.
  40. Tang, C. & Heuven, V.J.V., 2015. Predicting mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects from multiple objective linguistic distance measures. Linguistics, 53(2).
  41. Wedekind, K. & Wedekind, C., 1997. The development of writing systems: a guide. Adaptation and translation of other works for use at the workshop on orthography design.
  42. Wellman, L., 2013. Pudong and Putonghua: Sound Change and Language Shift in Shanghai. thesis.
  43. Anon, Zhuyin fuhao / Bopomofo (注音符號/ㄅㄆㄇㄈ). Lao alphabet, pronunciation and language. Available at: https://www.omniglot.com/writing/zhuyin.htm [Accessed July 27, 2018].
  44. Zwartjes, O., 2018. Missionary Dictionaries. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
  45. Zwartjes, O., 2018. Missionary Grammars. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
  46. Anon, (n.d.) 上海土音字写法. 上海土音字写法. Available at Oxford Library Bodleian Archives.