Rytm w perspektywach: lingwistycznej i neurobiologicznej

Main Article Content

Grażyna Młynarska

Abstrakt

This article is about rhythm from the linguistic and neurobiological perspectives. Comparing data from both domains could enable clarification of (long–term) confusion in acoustic and conceptual ideas of rhythm as well as providing a multidimensional definition of this category with solid neurobiological grounding and taking aspects of modeling speech production into consideration.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Młynarska, G. (2015). Rytm w perspektywach: lingwistycznej i neurobiologicznej. Investigationes Linguisticae, (32), 53-83. https://doi.org/10.14746/il.2015.32.4
Dział
Artykuły

Bibliografia

  1. Alba-Ferrara, L., Hausmann, M., Mitchell, R.L., Weis, S. 2011. The Neural Correlates of Emotional Prosody Comprehension: Disentangling Simple from Complex Emotion. PLoS ONE, vol. 6(12): e28701.
  2. Alm, P. 2004. Stuttering and the basal ganglia circuits: a critical review of possible relations. Journal of Communication Disorders, vol. 37, pp. 325-69.
  3. Alm, P. 2007. A new framework for understanding stuttering: The dual premotor model. w: J. Au-Yeung, M. Leahy (Eds.). Research, treatment, and self-help in fluency disorders. Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress on Fluency Disorders. Dublin, Ireland: New horizons. pp. 77-83.
  4. Arbib, M. A. 2005. The mirror system hypothesis stands but the framework is much enriched Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 28 (2), pp. 149-159.
  5. Armson, J., Kiefte, M., Mason, J., de Croos, D. 2006 The effect of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency in laboratory conditions. Journal of Fluency Disorders, vol. 31, pp. 137-152.
  6. Arvaniti, A. 2009. Rhythm, Timing and the Timing of Rhythm. Phonetica, vol. 66, pp. 46-63.
  7. Balan, A., Gandour, J. 1999. Effect of sentence length on the production of linguistic stress by left- and right-hemisphere-damaged patients. Brain and Language, vol. 67, pp. 73-94.
  8. Barbosa, P.A. 2007. How prosodic variability can be handled by a dynamical speech rhythm odel. Special Session on Timing. Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Saarbrücken.
  9. Batusek, R. 2002. A Duration Model for Czech Text-to-Speech Synthesis. Proceedings of Speech Prosody. Aix-en Provence.
  10. Beal, D. 2011. The advancement of neuroimaging research investigating developmental stuttering. Perspectives on Fluency and Fluency Disorders, vol. 21(3), pp. 88-95.
  11. Beal, D. 2013. Brain development in stuttering. Stuttering Foundation Newsletter.
  12. Beal, D. S., Gracco, V. L., Lafaille, S. J., de Nil, L. F. 2007. Voxel-based morphometry of auditory and speech-related cortex in stutterers. Neuroreport, vol. 18, pp. 1257-1260.
  13. Beckman, M. E. 1992. Evidence for speech rhythms across languages. w: Y. Tohkura, E. Vatikiotis-Bateson, Y. Sagisaka, (Eds.) Speech Perception, Production and Linguistic Structure. Tokyo: OHM Publishing Co. pp. 457-463.
  14. Beckman, M., Cohen, K. 2000. Modeling the articulatory dynamics of two levels of stress contrasts. w: M. Horne (Ed) Prosody: Theory and Experiment—Studies Presented to Gösta Bruce. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 169-200.
  15. Bloch, B. 1948. A set of postulates for phonemic analysis. Language, vol. 24, No 1, pp. 3-46.
  16. Boonstra, T.W., Stins, J.F., Daffertshofer, A., Beek, P.J. 2007. Effects of sleep deprivation on neural functioning: an integrative review. Cellular and Molecular Life vol. 64, pp. 934-946.
  17. Brown, S., Ingham, R.J., Ingham, J.C., Laird, A.R., Fox, P.T. 2005. Stuttered and fluent speech production: an ALE meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, vol. 25, pp. 105-117.
  18. Brunner, P., Bianchi, L., Guger, C. 2011. Current trends in hardware and software for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). J Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 8(2): 025001.
  19. Campbell, W. N., Isard, S. D. 1991. Segment durations in a syllable frame. Journal of Phonetics, vol. 19, pp. 37-47.
  20. Carmena, J.M., Lebedev, M.A., Crist, R.E., O'Doherty, J.E., Santucci, D.M., Dimitrov, D.F., Patil, P.G., Henriquez, C.S., Nicolelis, M.A. 2003. Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates. PLoS biology, 1: E42.
  21. Chang, S.E. 2011. Using brain imaging to unravel the mysteries of stuttering. Cerebrum; 2011, Jul.:12.
  22. Chang, S.E., Erickson, K.I., Ambrose, N.G., Hasegawa-Johnson, M.A., Ludlow, C.L. 2007. Brain anatomy differences in childhood stuttering. Neuroimage, vol. 39(3), pp. 1333-1344.
  23. Chang, S., Erickson, K.I., Ambrose, N.G., Hasegawa-Johnson, M.A., Ludlow, C.L. 2008. Brain anatomy differences in childhood stuttering. NeuroImage, vol. 39(3), pp. 1333-1344.
  24. Chang, S., Kenney, M.K., Loucks, T.M. J., Ludlow, C.L. 2009. Brain activation abnormalities during speech and non-speech in stuttering speakers. NeuroImage, vol. 46(1), pp. 201-212.
  25. Chomsky, N., Halle, M. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: HarperRow.
  26. Cooper, W., Soares, C., Nicol, J., Michelow, D., Goloskie, S. 1984. Clausal intonation after unilateral brain damage. Language and Speech, vol. 27, pp. 17-24.
  27. Cummins, F. 2002. Speech rhythm and rhythmic taxonomy. w: Proceedings of speech prosody, Aix-en-Provence, pp. 121-136.
  28. Danly, M., Cooper, W., Shapiro, B. 1983. Fundamental frequency, language processing, and linguistic structure in Wernicke’s aphasia. Brain and Language, vol. 19, pp. 1-24.
  29. Dapretto, M. ; Davies, M.S., Pfeifer, J.H., Scott, A.A., Sigman, M., Bookheimer, S.Y., Iacoboni, M. 2006. Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience, vol. 9 (1), pp. 28-30.
  30. de Nil, L.F., Beal, D.S., Lafaille, S.J., Kroll, R.M., Crawley, A.P., Gracco, V.L. 2008. The effects of simulated stuttering and prolonged speech on the neural activation patterns of stuttering and nonstuttering adults. Brain and Language, vol. 107(2): pp. 114-123.
  31. Dell, G. S. 1986. A Spreading activation theory of retrieval and sentence production. Psychological Review, vol. 93, pp. 283-321.
  32. Dell, G. S., Change, F., Griffin, Z.M. 1999. Connectionist models of language production: lexical access and grammatical encoding. Cognitive Review, vol. 23, pp. 517-542.
  33. Dresher, E., Kaye, J. 1990. A computational learning model for metrical phonology Cognition vol. 34, pp. 137-94.
  34. Ellis, N. 1998. Emergentism, connectionism and language learning, Language Learning, vol. 48, pp. 631-64.
  35. Elman, J. 1999. The emergence of language: A conspiracy theory. w: B. MacWhinney (Ed.) The emergence of language. Mahwah, NJ. pp. 1-27.
  36. Eran Dayan, E., Casile, A., Levit-Binnun, N., Giese, M.A., Hendler, T., Flash, T. 2007. Neural representations of kinematic laws of motion: Evidence for action-perception coupling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 104, pp. 20582-20587.
  37. Ernestus, M., Baayen, H. 2003. Predicting the unpredictable: interpreting neutralized segments in Dutch. Language, vol. 79, pp. 5-38.
  38. Fedyna, A., Drayna, D., Kang, C. 2011. Characterization of a mutation commonly associated with persistent stuttering: evidence for a founder mutation. Journal of Human Genetics 56, pp. 80-82.
  39. Fields, D.R., 2008. White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders. Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 31(7), pp. 361-70.
  40. Fields, D.R., Stevens-Graham, B. 2002 New insights into neuron-glía communication. Science 18, vol. 298, no. 5593, pp. 556-562.
  41. Foundas, A.L., Bollich, A.M., Corey, D., Hurley, M., Heilman, K. 2001. Anomalous anatomy of speech-language areas in adults with persistent developmental stuttering. Neurology, vol. 57, pp. 207-215.
  42. Foundas, A.L., Bollich, A.M., Feldman, J., Corey, D.M., Hurley, M., Heilman, K.M. 2004 Atypical planum temporale anatomy in stuttering: Relationship to delayed auditory feedback. Neurology, vol. 63, pp. 1640-1646.
  43. Gandour, J., Baum, S. 2001. Production of stress retraction by left- and right-hemisphere-damaged patients. Brain and Language, vol. 79, pp. 482-494.
  44. Gandour, J., Dzemidzic, M., Wong, D. 2003. Temporal integration of speech prosody is shaped by language experience: an fMRI study. Brain and Language, vol. 84, pp. 318-336.
  45. Geschwind, N., Galaburda, A. 1985. Cerebral lateralization: biological mechanisms, associations and pathology: A hypothesis and a program for research. Archives of Neurology. 42: Part I: pp. 428-459; II pp. 34-552; III pp. 634-654.
  46. Goldsmith, J. 1976. Autosegmental phonology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ph. D. dissertation: Cambridge. [Published by Garland Press, New York, 1979].
  47. Górska, T. 2005. Rola rdzenia kręgowego ipnia mózgu w zachowaniu. w: Mózg a zachowanie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. pp. 232-255.
  48. Górska, T., Majczyński H. 2005. Mechanizmy sterowania ruchami dowolnymi. w: Mózg a zachowanie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. pp. 256-280.
  49. Gurański, K., Słotwiński, K., Podemski R. 2008. Prozodia mowy w niedokrwiennym udarze mózgu. Udar Mózgu, tom 10, nr 2, pp. 96-103.
  50. Halle, M., Vergnaud, J.R. 1987. An essay on stress. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  51. Hamilton de, C.A.F. 2013. Reflecting on the mirror neuron system in autism: A systematic review of current theories. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 3, January, pp. 91-105.
  52. Harris, Z. 1944. Simultaneous components in phonology. Language, vol. 20, pp. 181-205.
  53. Hart ’t, J. 1979. Explorations in automatic stylization of f0 curves. IPO Annual Progress Report, vol. 14, pp. 61-65.
  54. Hayes, B. 1980. A metrical theory of stress rules. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ph. D. dissertation: Cambridge. [Published by Garland Press, New York, 1985].
  55. Hayes, B. 1980. A metrical theory of stress rules. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ph. D. dissertation: Cambridge. [Published by Garland Press, New York, 1985].
  56. Hayes, B. 1985. Iambic and trochaic rhythm in stress rules, Proceedings of Berkeley Linguistics Society 11. Parassession on Poetics, metrics, and prosody. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistic Society. pp. 429-46.
  57. Hesling, I., Clément, S., Bordessoules, M., Allard, M. 2005. Cerebral mechanisms of prosodic integration: evidence from connected speech. Neuroimage, vol. 24, pp. 937-947.
  58. Hickok, G. 2009. Eight problems for the mirror neuron theory of action understanding in monkeys and humans. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 21 (7), pp. 1229-1243.
  59. Hill, D.R., Schock C.R., Manzara, L. 1992. Unrestricted text-to-speech revisited: rhythm and intonation. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 12th. -16th., pp. 1219-1222.
  60. Iacoboni, M. 2009. Imitation, Empathy, and Mirror Neurons. Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 60, pp. 653-670.
  61. Jauer-Niworowska, O. 2009. Dyzartria nabyta. Warszawa: APS.
  62. Jegliński, W. 2005. Mózg a układ odpornościowy w: Mózg a zachowanie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. pp. 118.
  63. Kalinowski, J. 2003. Self-reported efficacy of an all in-the-ear-canal prosthetic device to inhibit stuttering during one hundred hours of university teaching. Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 25, pp. 107-111.
  64. Kang, C., Riazuddin, S., Mundorff, J., Krasnewich, D., Friedman, P., Mullikin, J. C., Drayna, D. 2010. Mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway and persistent stuttering. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, pp. 677-685.
  65. Káradóttir, R., Hamilton, N.B., Bakiri, Y., Attwell, D. 2008. Spiking and nonspiking classes of oligodendrocyte precursor glia in CNS white matter. Nature Neuroscience, vol. 11, pp. 450-456.
  66. Kell, C.A., Neumann, K., von Kriegstein, K., Posenenske, C, von Gudenberg, A.W., Euler, H., Giraud A. (2009). How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain, vol. 132(10), pp. 2747-2760.
  67. Keller, E. 2009. From Sound to Rhythm Expectancy (Tutorial). 5o Convegno Nazionale AISV. Università de Zurigo. Switzerland.
  68. Kenstowicz, M. J. 1994. Phonology in Generative Grammar. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
  69. Kim, S., Yoon, J., Chang, S. E., Kim, H. 2012. The role of subcortical regions in speech production. Journal of the Korean Neurological Association, vol. 30(1), pp. 1-9.
  70. Kiparsky, P. 1982. From cyclic phonology to lexical phonology. w: H. van der Hulst, N. Smith, (Eds.) The structure of phonological representations, part I. Dordrecht: Foris. pp. 131-75.
  71. Klatt, D. 1979. Synthesis by Rule of Segmental Durations in English Sentences. w: B. Lindblom, S. Ohman (Eds.) Frontiers in Speech Communication Research. New York: Academic Press.
  72. Klatt, D. 1987. Review of Text-to-Speech Conversion for English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 82(3), pp. 737-93.
  73. Kostal, L., Lansky, P., Rospars, J. P. 2007. Neuronal coding and spiking randomness. European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 26 (10), pp. 2693-701.
  74. Kothare, S. V, Kotagal, S. 2011. Sleep in Childhood Neurological Disorders New York:Demos medical Publishing.
  75. Kreiman, G. 2004. Neural coding: computational and biophysical perspectives. Physics of Life Reviews, vol. 2, pp. 71-102.
  76. Krusienski, D.J., Grosse-Wentrup, M., Galán, F. 2011. Critical issues in state-of-the-art brain-computer interface signal processing. Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 8(2): 025002.
  77. Kukley, M., Capetillo-Zarate, E. Dietrich, D. 2007. Vesicular glutamate release from axons in white matter. Nature Neuroscience, vol. 10, pp. 311-320.
  78. Lee, W.S., Kang, C., Drayna, D., Kornfeld, S. 2011. Analysis of mannose 6-phosphate uncovering enzyme mutations associated with persistent stuttering. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Nov. 18, 286:39786-39793.
  79. Levelt, W. 1989. Speaking. from intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  80. Liberman, M., Prince, A. 1977. On stress and linguistic rhythm. Linguistic Inquiry, vol. 8, pp. 249-336.
  81. Lingnau, A., Gesierich, B., Caramazza, A. 2009. Asymmetric fMRI adaptation reveals no evidence for mirror neurons in humans. PNAS, February 28, 2009 (7).
  82. Local, J.K., Ogden, R. 1997. A model of timing for non-segmental phonological structure. w: J. van Santen, R. Sproat, J. Olive, ; J. Hirschberg (Eds.) Progress in Speech Synthesis. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 108-121.
  83. Machado, S., Araújo, F., Paes, F. 2010. EEG-based brain-computer interfaces: an overview of basic concepts and clinical applications in neurorehabilitation. Reviews in the neurosciences, vol. 21(6), pp. 451-468.
  84. MacWhinney, B. 1999. Preface. w: B. MacWhinney (Ed.) The emergence of language. Mahwah, NJ. pp. ix-xvii.
  85. Maguire, G., Riley, G.D., Wu, J.C., Franklin, D.L., Potkin, S. 1997. Effects of risperidone in the treatment of stuttering. w: Speech Production: Motor Control, Brain Research and Fluency Disorders. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  86. Mak, J. N., Arbel, Y., Minett, J. W. 2011. Optimizing the P300-based brain-computer interface: current status, limitations and future directions. Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 8(2): 025003.
  87. McCarthy, J., Prince, A. 1986/1996. Prosodic morphology. Report no. RuCC-TR-32. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science.
  88. Menn, L. 2000. Babies, buzzsaws and blueprints: Commentary on review article by Sabbagh, Gelman. Journal of Child Language, vol. 27, pp. 753-55.
  89. Merlo, S. 2012. Stuttering and sleep: some speculation. w: International Stuttering Awareness Day Online Conference - A voice and something to say. Mankato (Minnesota, EUA).
  90. Moore, B. 1989. An introduction to the psychology of hearing. San Diego: Academic Press.
  91. Murdoch, B.E. 2010 The cerebellum and language: Historical perspective and review. Cortex, vol. 46 (7), pp. 858-868.
  92. O’Grady, W. 2005. Syntactic carpentry: An emergentist approach to syntax. Mahwah, NJ.
  93. Oberman, L.M., Hubbard, E.M., McCleery, J.P., Altschuler, E.L., Ramachandran, V.S., Pineda, J.A. 2005-06. EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectral disorders. Brain research. Cognitive brain research, vol. 24(2), pp. 190-8.
  94. Orton, S.T. 1927. Studies in stuttering. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 18, pp. 671-672.
  95. Orzeł-Gryglewska, J. 2010. Consequences of sleep deprivation. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 23(1), pp. 95-114.
  96. Palagini, L., Bruno, R.M., Gemignani, A., Baglioni, C., Ghiadoni, L., Riemann, D. 2013. Sleep loss and hypertension: a systematic review. Current Pharmaceutical Design vol. 19(13), pp. 2409-19.
  97. Palma, J.A., Urrestarazu, E., Iriarte J. 2013. Sleep loss as risk factor for neurologic disorders: A review. Sleep Medicine, vol. 14, issue 3, March, pp. 229-236.
  98. Pätzold, H. 2010. Review Essay: Mirror Neurons in the Discourse of Social Sciences Qualitative Social Research, vol. 11, no. 3.
  99. Pellegrino di, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G. 1992. Understanding motor events: a neurophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research, vol. 91, pp. 176-180.
  100. Pierrehumbert, J. 1980. The phonetics and phonology of English intonation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ph. D. dissertation: Cambridge.
  101. Pierrehumbert, J. 1981. Synthesizing Intonation, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 70, pp. 985-995.
  102. Pierrehumbert, J., Beckman, M., Ladd, D. R. 1996. Laboratory phonology. w: J. Durand, B. Laks, B. (Eds.) Current trends in phonology: models and methods. Manchester: European Studies Resarch Institute, University of Salford, pp. 535-48.
  103. Polański K. [red. ] 1995. Encyklopedia językoznawstwa ogólnego. Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków: Ossolineum.
  104. Pollard, R., Ellis, J.B., Finan, D., Ramig, P.R. 2009. Effects of the SpeechEasy on objective and perceived aspects of stuttering: A 6-month, Phase I Clinical Trial in naturalistic environments. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, vol. 52, pp. 516-533.
  105. Prince, A. 1983. Relating to the grid. Linguistic Inquiry vol. 14, pp. 19-100.
  106. Prince, A., Smolensky, P. 1993. Optimality theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. Report no. RuCCS-TR-2. New Brunswick, NJ. Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science. [Published by Blackwell: Cambridge 2004].
  107. Riaz, N., Steinberg, S., Ahmad, J., Pluzhnikov, A., Riazuddin, S., Cox, N. J., Drayna, D. 2005. Genomewide significant linkage to stuttering on chromosome 12. American Journal of Human Genetics vol. 76, pp. 647-651.
  108. Rothenberger, A., Johannsem, H., Schulze, H., Amorosa, H., Rommel, D. 1994. Use of tiapride on stuttering in children andadolescents. Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 79, pp. 1163-1170.
  109. Sandak, R. 2000. Stuttering: a view from neuroimaging. Lancet, vol. 356 (9228), pp. 445 - 446.
  110. Schirmer, A., Alter, K., Kotz, S., Friederici, A. 2001. Lateralization of prosody during language production: a lesion study. Brain and Language, vol. 76, pp. 1-17.
  111. Seddoh, S. 2004. Prosodic disturbance in aphasia: speech timing versus intonation production. Clinical. Linguistics Phonetics, vol. 18, pp. 17-38.
  112. Selkirk, E. 1980. Prosodic domains in phonology: Sanskrit revisited. w: M. Aronoff, M. Kean, (Eds). Juncture. Saratoga, Ca.: Anma Libri. pp. 107-29.
  113. Selkirk, E. 1982. The syllable. w: H. van der Hulst, N. Smith (Eds.) The structure of phonological representations, part II. Dordrecht: Foris. pp. 337-83.
  114. Selkirk, E. 1986. On derived domains in sentence phonology. Phonology yearbook, vol. 3, pp. 371-405.
  115. Shah, A., Baum, S., Dwivedi, V. 2006. Neural substrates of linguistic prosody: evidence from syntactic disambiguation in the productions of brain-damaged patients. Brain and Language, vol. 96, pp. 78-89.
  116. Skangiel-Kramska, J. 2005. Neuroprzekazniki i ich receptory. w: Mózg a zachowanie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. pp. 43.
  117. Stampe, D. 1973. A dissertation on natural phonology. Chicago: University of Chicago Ph. D. dissertation. [Published by Garland Press, New York, 1979].
  118. Steinmann, S., Muler, CH. 2012. Functional relevance of interhemispheric fiber tracts in speech processing. Journal of Neurolinguistics 01 (25), pp. 1-12.
  119. Szeląg, E. 1998. Zaburzenia percepcji czasu podłożem różnego rodzaju afazji. Biuletyn Polskiego Stowarzyszenia Terapeutów Mow, vol. 6, pp. 108- 112.
  120. Szulc, A. 1984. Podręczny słownik językoznawstwa stosowanego: dydaktyka języków obcych. Warszawa:PWN.
  121. Tabain, M., Perrier, P. 2005. Articulation and acoustics of /i/ in pre-boundary position in French. Journal of Phonetics, vol. 33, pp. 77-100.
  122. Tajima, K. 1998. Speech Rhythm in English and Japanese: Experiments in Speech Cycling. Ph. Dissertation. Indiana University.
  123. Taylor P. A. 2000. Analysis and synthesis of intonation using the Tilt model. Journal of Acoustic Society of America vol. 107(3), pp. 1697-1714.
  124. Trubetzkoy, N. S. 1962. Grundzüge der Phonologie. Göttingen.
  125. Tylka, J. 2005. Psychosomatyka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo UKSW.
  126. Ufnal, M., Wolynczyk-Gmaj, D. 2011. Mózg i cytokiny - wspólne podłoże depresji, otyłości i chorób układu krążenia? Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej, vol. 65, pp. 228-235.
  127. Vainio, M. 2001. Artificial Neural Network Based Prosody Models for Finnish Text-to-Speech Synthesis, Finland: University of Helsinki.
  128. Vanderwert, R.E, Fox, N.A., Ferrari, P.F. 2013 The mirror mechanism and mu rhythm in social development. Neuroscience Letters, vol. 540, pp. 15-20.
  129. Watkins, K. 2008. Mind over white matter: Differences in brains of young people who stammer. Speaking Out, Spring Edition (a publication of the British Stammering Association). pp. 14-15.
  130. Watkins, K.E., Vargha-Khadem, F., Ashburner, J., Passingham, R.E., Connelly, A., Friston, K. J., Frackowiak, R.S.J., Mishkin, M., Gadian, D.G. 2002. MRI analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: Structural brain abnormalities. Brain, vol. 125: pp. 465-478.
  131. Writer, Q. 2001. Hard Linguistic Research. w: J. Nowak (Ed.) Smoke on the Linguistic Fields. Paris: Gruyer Ltd. pp. 25-47.
  132. Wróbel, A. 2005. Neuron i sieci neuronowe w: Mózg a zachowanie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. pp. 71.
  133. Zander, T.O., Kothe, C. 2011. Towards passive brain-computer interfaces: applying brain-computer interface technology to human-machine systems in general. Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 8(2): 025005.
  134. Zellner Keller, B. 2002. Revisiting the Status of Speech Rhythm, Proceedings of Speech Prosody Conference 2002 (Eds. B. Bel and I. Marlien), Aix-en-Provence, April 11-13, 2002, pp. 727-730.
  135. Ziskin, J.L., Nishiyama, A., Rubio, M., Fukaya, M., Bergles, D. E. 2007. Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter. Nature Neuroscience, vol. 10, pp. 321-330.