Main Article Content
The protection of whistle-blowers under the Article 10 of ECHR has faced a lot of com-plex problems, which had been a result from the implications of ICT`s development and change of the media environment. The COE is involved in a worldwide debate about changes taking places in a contemporary legal system in the context of the protection of human rights. Therefore, the review of the latest legal initiatives (resolutions, recommendations, etc.) as well as other activities in the field concerned might be helpful to put the question-able issues.As the article is of the introductory character, further analysis is required. Within the human rights approach, it should concern, in particular the legal status of the whistle-blower and the issues, pertaining to legal and alternative ways of her/his protection.
- Badźmirowska-Masłowska K., Media a współczesne konflikty w świetle wybranych do-kumentów Rady Europy. Wstęp do analizy prawnej, „Zeszyty Naukowe AON” 2012, No. 3/88.
- Badźmirowska-Masłowska K., Status prawny a bezpieczeństwo mediów w sytuacjach współczesnych konfliktów,„Journal of Modern Science” 2013, no. 3.
- Badźmirowska-Masłowska K., Status prawny a bezpieczeństwo mediów w sytuacjach współczesnych konfliktów. Wyzwania XXI wieku, in: Nie-bezpieczny świat. Systemy. In-formacja. Bezpieczeństwo, eds. P. Sienkiewicz, H. Świeboda, E. Szczepaniuk, Warsza-wa 2015.
- Baumbach T., Chilling Effect as a European Court of Human Rights Concept in Media Law Cases,“Bergen Journal of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice”, Vol. 6, Issue 1, 2018.
- Clark M., Grech A., Journalists under pressure - Unwarranted interference, fear and self-censorship in Europe, COE 2017.
- Domingo D., Heinonen A., Weblogs and Journalism: A Typology to Explore the Blurring Boundaries, “Nordicom Review“ 2008, No. 29/1.
- Jakubowicz K., A new notion of media?Media and media-like content and activities on new communication services, Strasbourg 2009.Jakubowicz K., Media revolution in Europe: ahead of the curve, Strasbourg 2011.
- McGonagle T., How to address current threats to journalism?: The role of the Council of Eu-rope in protecting journalists and other media actors, 2013.
- Leach P., The principles which can be drawn from the case-law of the European Court of Hu-man Rightsrelating to the protection and safety of journalists and journalism,2013.
- Nikoltchev S., McGonagle T. eds., Freedom of Expression and the Media, IRIS 2011.
- Parma S., The Protection and Safety of Journalists: A Review of International and Regional Human Rights LawBackground paper in: Towards an effective framework of protection for the work of journalists and an end to impunity,Strasbourg 2014.
- Płoszka A., Ochrona demaskatorów (whistleblowers) w orzecznictwie ETPCZ, „Europejski Przegląd Sądowy” 2014.
- Vandekerckhove W.,Freedom of expression as the “broken promise” of whistleblower protec-tion, “La Revue des droits de l’homme” 2016, No.10.
- Voorhoof D., Right case of Guja v. Moldova, IRIS 2008.Civil Law Convention on Corruption. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Declaration on the protection of journalism and safety of journalists and other media actors adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 30 April 2014.
- Recommendation 1916 on the Protection of “whistle-blowers” adopted by the Assembly on 29 April 2010.Recommendation 1950 on the protection of journalists’ sources adopted by the Assembly on 25 January 2011.
- Recommendation on a new notion of media adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 21 September 2011 at the 1121st meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies.
- Recommendation 2024 on the National security and access to information adopted by the As-sembly on 2 October 2013.
- Recommendation on the Protection of whistleblowers adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 30 April 2014.
- Recommendation 2073 on the Improving the protection of whistle-blowers adopted by the As-sembly on 23 June 2015.
- Recommendation 2067 on the Mass surveillance adopted by the Assembly on 21 April 2015.
- Recommendation on the protection of journalism and safety of journalists and other media ac-tors adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 13 April 2016.
- Recommendation 2111 on the Political influence over independent media and journalists (Text adopted by the Assembly on 29 June 2017.
- Resolution 1438 on the Freedom of the press and the working conditions of journalists in con-flict zones adopted by the Assembly on 28 April 2005.
- Resolution 1729/2010 on the Protection of “whistle-blowers” adopted by the Assembly on 29 April 2010.
- Resolution 1954 on the National security and access to information adopted by the Assembly on 2 October 2013.
- Resolution on the Safety of journalists, in: Political declaration and resolutions of 2013.Resolution 2060 Improving the protection of whistle-blowers adopted by the Assembly on 23 June 2015.
- Resolution 2045 on the Mass surveillance adopted by the Assembly on 21 April 2015.
- Resolution 2035 on the Protection of the safety of journalists and of media freedom in Europe adopted by the Assembly on 29 January 2015.
- Resolution 2179 Political influence over independent media and journalists adopted by the Assembly on 29 June 2017.
- <https://www.coe.int/en/web/media-freedom/annual-report >.