Main Article Content
This article presents a brief overview of historical methods of legal proof prior to and soon after the Norman Conquest of England in October 1066. Through an examination of the rituals of compurgation and the ordeal, which were techniques designed to discover truth prior to the establishment of the inquisition in medieval Europe and the common law jury trial in England, the human quest for intellectual conviction has been indelibly with us since the days of antiquity. And, whichever method to ascertain truth is ultimately utilized – compurgation or ordeal, inquisition or cross-examination, trial by judge or by jury – the law’s enduring search for certainty amidst a world of doubt owes much to the history and times of William the Conqueror.
Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa – Użycie niekomercyjne – Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe.
- Abbot J., History of William the Conqueror, New York 1899.
- Bingham T., Widening Horizons: The Influence of Comparative Law and International Law on Domestic Law, Cambridge 2010.
- Bishop M., The Middle Ages, Boston 1987.
- Bridgeford A., 1066: The Hidden History in the Bayeux Tapestry, New York 2005.
- Brundage J., The Rise of Professional Canonists and the Development of the ius Commune. “Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeshichte (KA)” 1995, vol. 81.
- Christie-Murray D., A History of Heresy, 2nd ed. Oxford 1991.
- Coleman-Norton P.R., Why Study Roman Law? “Journal of Legal Education” 1950, vol. 2, no. 4.
- Colman, R.V. Reason and unreason in Early Medieval Law, “The Journal of Interdisciplinary History” 1974, vol. 4, no. 4.
- Damaška M., The Quest for Due Process in the Age of Inquisition, “The American Journal of Comparative Law” 2012, vol. 60, no. 4.
- David R. and Brierley J.E.C., Major Legal Systems in the World Today, 2nd ed., London 1978.
- DeVries K., The Norwegian Invasion of England in 1066. Woodbridge, Suffolk-Rochester, New York 1999.
- Eidelberg S., Trial by Ordeal in Medieval Jewish History: Laws, Customs and Attitudes, “Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research” 1979, vol. 46/47.
- Gest J.M., The Influence of Biblical Texts upon English Law, “University of Pennsylvania Law Review and American Law Register” 1910, vol. 59, no. 1.
- Glenn H.P., Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable Diversity in Law, 4th ed., Oxford 2010.
- Groot R.D., The Jury of Presentment before 1215, “The American Journal of Legal History” 1982, vol. 26, no. 1.
- Gross C., Modes of Trial in the Mediaeval Boroughs of England, “Harvard Law Review” 1902, vol. 15, no. 9.
- Hanson E., Torture and Truth in Renaissance England. “Representations” 1991, no. 34.
- Head J.W., Great Legal Traditions: Civil Law, Common Law, and Chinese Law in Historical and Operational Perspective, Durham, NC, 2011.
- Helmholz R.H., Crime, Compurgation, and the Courts of the Medieval Church, “Law and History Review” 1983, vol. 1, no. 1.
- Helmholz R.H., The Early History of the Grand Jury and the Canon Law, “The University of Chicago Law Review” 1983, vol. 50, no. 2.
- Ho H.L., The Legitimacy of Medieval Proof, “Journal of Law and Religion” 2003–2004, vol. 19, no. 2.
- Holland C., Repulse at Hastings, October 14, 1066: William does not conquer England, in: The Collected What If? Eminent Historians Imagining What Might Have Been, ed. R. Cowley, New York 2001.
- Holmes Jr. O.W., The Common Law, Boston 1881.
- Howarth D., 1066: The Year of the Conquest, New York 1978.
- Hudson R., The Judicial Reforms of the Reign of Henry II, “Michigan Law Review” 1911, vol. 9, no. 5.
- Kelley D.R., History, English Law and the Renaissance, “Past & Present” 1974, vol. 65.
- Kelly H.A., Inquisition and the Prosecution of Heresy: Misconceptions and Abuses, “Church History” 1989, vol. 58, no. 4.
- Kerr M.H., Forsyth R.D. and Plyley M.J., Cold Water and Hot Iron: Trial by Ordeal in England, “The Journal of Interdisciplinary Review” 1992, vol. 22, no. 4.
- Lawson M.K., Cnut: The Danes in England in the Early Eleventh Century, London 1993.
- Levy L.W., Origins of the Fifth Amendment: The Right Against Self-Incrimination, New York 1968.
- Manchester W., A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance, Portrait of an Age, New York 1992.
- McAuley F., Canon Law and the End of the Ordeal, “Oxford Journal of Legal Studies” 2006, vol. 26, no. 3.
- Nirenberg D., Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages, Princeton 1996.
- Mäkinin V., Pihlajamäki H., The Individualization of Crime in Medieval Canon Law, “Journal of the History of Ideas” 2004, vol. 65, no. 4.
- Moore R.I., The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Authority and Deviance in Western Europe 950–1250, 2nd ed., Malden, MA, 2007.
- Norwich J.J., Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy, New York 2011.
- Palmer B.W., An Imperishable System: What the World Owes to Roman Law, “American Bar Association Journal” 1959, vol. 45, no. 11.
- Peters E., Inquisition, Berkeley–Los Angeles 1989.
- Planck J.W., The Survival of Roman Law. “American Bar Association Journal” 1965, vol. 51, no. 3.
- Ploscowe M., The Development of Present-Day Criminal Procedures in Europe and America, “Harvard Law Review” 1935, vol. 48, no. 3.
- Pollock Sir F. and F.W. Maitland, The History of English Law: Before the Time of Edward I, 2nd ed., vol. ii, London 1898. Reprint, Cambridge 1968.
- Ramage C.J., Roman Law, “The Virginia Law Review” 1922, vol. 7, no. 12.
- Seipp D.J., The Reception of Canon Law and Civil Law in the Common Law Courts before 1600, “Oxford Journal of Legal Studies” 1993, vol. 13, no. 3.
- Shack W.A., Collective Oath: Compurgation in Anglo-Saxon England and African states, “European Journal of Sociology” 1979, vol. 20, no. 1.
- Sigler J.A., A History of Double Jeopardy, “The American Journal of Legal History” 1963, vol. 7, no. 4.
- Shoemaker K., The Devil at Law in the Middle Ages, “Revue De L’histoire Des Religions” 2011, vol. 228, no. 4.
- Thayer J.B., The Older Modes of Trial, “Harvard Law Review” 1891, vol. 5, no. 2.
- Wigmore J.H., The Privilege against Self-Crimination: Its History, “Harvard Law Review” 1902, vol. 15, no. 8.
- Williams I., The Tudor Genesis of Edward Coke’s Immemorial Common Law, ‘The Sixteenth Century Journal” 2012, vol. 43, no. 1.
- Wijaczka J., The Cold Water Ordeal (Swimming) in Witchcraft Accusations and Trials in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Sixteenth-Eighteenth Century, transl. by Natalia Klopotek, “Odrodzenie i Reformacja w Polsce” 2016, vol. 60.
- Zweigert K., Kötz H., An Introduction to Comparative Law, 3rd ed., transl. T. Weir, Oxford 1998.