Percepcja muzyki – słuchanie muzyki czy słuchanie dźwięków
Obraz okładki z napisem "Res Facta Nova. Teksty o muzyce współczesnej" 19 (28) 2018

Słowa kluczowe

auditory perception,
uditory scene analysis
nctions of the sense of hearing
ound communication
erceptual constructivism
cognitive predispositions

Jak cytować

Podlipniak, P. (2018). Percepcja muzyki – słuchanie muzyki czy słuchanie dźwięków. Res Facta Nova. Teksty O Muzyce współczesnej, (19 (28), 35–48.


Listening to music is usually understood as perception of a stimulus of a particular kind which, however, does not differ in any special way from listening to other, non-musical sound stimuli. Numerous observations show, however, that the majority of musical stimuli is perceived in a particular manner, suggesting that alongside the cognitive strategies used in the perception of all kinds of sound stimuli, listening to music also activates music-specific cognitive mechanisms. On the other hand, a large section of musical artistic output of the Western culture in the twentieth century became an exceptional phenomenon, both in historical and geographical perspective, in that it abandoned the organisation of the sound structure of music on the basis of pitch-rhythm relationships. From the psychological perspective, this exceptionality consists above all in omitting, during the perceptual processing of this kind of music, of some of the perceptual cognitive structures characteristically involved in the perception of traditionally conceived melodic structures. For a full understanding of the ways of perceiving music it is thus necessary to apply contemporary knowledge of the specific features of the human cognitive system and its evolutionary sources. The aim of the article is to presenta number of various cognitive mechanisms of different evolutionary age which are involved in the perception of music, as well as an attempt to indicate their differentiated participation in the creation of the aesthetic experience of different kinds of music.


Adler Guido, Umfang, Methode und Ziel der Musikwissenschaft, „Vierteljahrschrift für Musikwissenschaft ” 1885 t. 1, s. 5–20.

Bickerton Derek, Adam’s Tongue: How Humans Made Language, How Language Made Humans, Hill and Wang, New York 2010.

Bregman Albert S., Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.–London 1990.

Bregman Albert S., Pinker Steven, Auditory Streaming and the Building of Timbre, „Canadian Journal of Psychology” 1978 t. 32 nr 1, s. 19–31.

Chomsky Noam, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1965.

Darwin Charles, O pochodzeniu człowieka, przeł. Stanisław Panek, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Warszawa 1959.

Dawkins Richard, The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford–New York 1989.

Deutsch Diana, Henthorn Trevor, Lapidis Rachael, Illusory Transformation from Speech to Song, „The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America” 2011 t. 129 nr 4, s. 2245–2252.

Deutsch Diana, Lapidis Rachael, Henthorn Trevor, The Speech-to-Song Illusion, „The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America” 2008 t. 124 nr 4, s. 2471.

Dor Daniel, Jablonka Eva, How Language Changed the Genes: Toward an Explicit Account of the Evolution of Language, [w:] New Essays on the Origin of Language, red. Jürgen Trabant, Sean Ward, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin–New York 2001, s. 149–176.

Dutton Denis, The Art Instinct: Beauty, Pleasure, and Human Evolution, Bloomsbury Press, New York–Berlin–London 2009.

Fitch W. Tecumseh, Jarvis Erich D., Birdsong and Other Animal Models for Human Speech, Song, and Vocal Learning, [w:] Language, Music and the Brain, red. Michael A. Arbib, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.–London 2013, s. 499–539.

Fort Mathilde, Martin Alexander, Peperkamp Sharon, Consonants Are More Important than Vowels in the Bouba–Kiki Effect, „Language and Speech” 2015 t. 58 nr 2, s. 247–266.

Gorzelańczyk Edward J., Functional Anatomy, Physiology and Clinical Aspects of Basal Ganglia, [w:] Neuroimaging for Clinicians – Combining Research and Practice, red. Julio F.P. Peres, IntechOpen, Rijeka 2011, s. 89–106.

Gorzelańczyk Edward J., Podlipniak Piotr, Walecki Piotr, Karpiński Maciej, Tarnowska Emilia, Pitch Syntax Violations Are Linked to Greater Skin Conductance Changes, Relative to Timbral Violations – the Predictive Role of the Reward System in Perspective of Cortico–Subcortical Loops, „Frontiers in Psychology” 2017 nr 8, s. 1–11;

Hagen Edward H., Bryant Gregory A., Music and Dance as a Coalition Signaling System, „Human Nature” 2003 t. 14 nr 1, s. 21–51.

Horowitz Seth S., The Universal Sense: How Hearing Shapes the Mind, Bloomsbury Press, New York 2012.

Humięcka-Jakubowska Justyna, Scena słuchowa muzyki dwudziestowiecznej, Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, Poznań 2006.

Huron David Brian, Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.–London 2006.

Huron David Brian, Voice Leading: The Science behind a Musical Art, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.–London 2016.

Janik Vincent M., Slater Peter J.B., Vocal Learning in Mammals, „Advances in the Study of Behavior” 1997 t. 26, s. 59–99.

Jarvis Erich D., Neural Systems for Vocal Learning in Birds and Humans: A Synopsis, „Journal of Ornithology” 2007 t. 148 (1), s. 35–44.

Jarzębska Alicja, Idee relacji serialnych w muzyce XX wieku, Musica Iagellonica, Kraków 1995.

Jentschke Sebastian, Friederici Angela D., Koelsch Stefan, Neural Correlates of Music-Syntactic Processing in Two-Year Old Children, „Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience” 2014 t. 9, s. 200–208.

Kalan Ammie K., Mundry Roger, Boesch Christophe, Wild Chimpanzees Modify Food Call Structure with Respect to Tree Size for a Particular Fruit Species, „Animal Behaviour” 2015 t. 101, s. 1–9.

Kielan-Jaworowska Zofia, W poszukiwaniu wczesnych ssaków: ssaki ery dinozaurów, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa 2013.

Klawiter Andrzej, O słyszeniu przedmiotów, [w:] Umysł a rzeczywistość, red. Andrzej Klawiter, Leszek Nowak, Piotr Przybysz, Zysk i Spółka, Poznań 1999, s. 327–339.

Koelsch Stefan, Brain and Music, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford 2013.

Koelsch Stefan, Neural Substrates of Processing Syntax and Semantics in Music, „Current Opinion in Neurobiology” 2005 t. 15 nr 2, s. 207–212.

Koelsch Stefan, Fritz Thomas, Schlaug Gottfried, Amygdala Activity Can Be Modulated by Unexpected Chord Functions during Music Listening, „NeuroReport” 2008 t. 19 (18), s. 1815–1819.

Koelsch Stefan, Kilches Simone, Steinbeis Nikolaus, Schelinski Stefanie, Effects of Unexpected Chords and of Performer’s Expression on Brain Responses and Electrodermal Activity, „PLoS ONE” 2008 t. 3/7; e2631;

Kraus Nina, Skoe Erika, Parbery-Clark Alexandra, Ashley Richard, Experience-Induced Malleability in Neural Encoding of Pitch, Timbre, and Timing, „Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences” 2009 t. 1169 nr 1, s. 543–557.

Krishnan Ananthanarayan, Gandour Jackson T., Bidelman Gavin M., Experience-Dependent Plasticity in Pitch Encoding: From Brainstem to Auditory Cortex, „NeuroReport” 2012 t. 23 nr 8, s. 498–502.

Krumhansl Carol L., Cognitive Foundations of Musical Pitch, Oxford University Press, New York 1990.

Ladich Friedrich, Popper Arthur N., Parallel Evolution in Fish Hearing Organs, [w:] Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System, red. Geoffrey A. Manley, Arthur N. Popper, Richard R. Fay, Springer, New York 2004, s. 95–127.

Lewis Edwin R., Fay Richard R., Environmental Variables and the Fundamental Nature of Hearing, [w:] Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System, red. Geoffrey A. Manley, Arthur N. Popper, Richard R. Fay, Springer, New York 2004, s. 27–54.

London Justin, Three Things Linguists Need to Know About Rhythm and Time in Music, „Empirical Musicology Review” 2012 t. 7 nr 1–2, s. 5–11.

Maess Burkhard, Koelsch Stefan, Gunter Thomas C., Friederici Angela D., Musical Syntax Is Processed in Broca’s Area: An MEG Study, „Nature Neuroscience” 2001 t. 4 nr 5, s. 540–545.

Manley Geoffrey A., Clack Jennifer A., An Outline of the Evolution of Vertebrate Hearing Organs, [w:] Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System, red. Geoffrey A. Manley, Arthur N. Popper, Richard R. Fay, Springer, New York 2004, s. 1–26.

Margulis Elizabeth Hellmuth, On Repeat: How Music Plays the Mind, Oxford University Press, Oxford–New York 2014.

McAdams Stephen, Bregman Albert, Hearing Musical Streams, „Computer Music Journal” 1979 t. 3 nr 4, s. 26–43.

Merker Björn, Is There a Biology of Music? And Why Does It Matter, [w:] Proceedings of the 5th Triennial ESCOM Conference, red. Reinhard Kopiez, Andreas C. Lehmann, Irving Wolther, Christian Wolf, Hanover University of Music and Drama, Hannover 2003, s. 402–405.

Merker Björn, Layered Constraints on the Multiple Creativities of Music, [w:] Musical Creativity Multidisciplinary Research in Theory and Practice, red. Irène Deliège, Geraint A. Wiggins, Psychology Press, Hove–New York 2006, s. 25–41.

Merker Björn, Music: The Missing Humboldt System, „Musicae Scientiae” 2002 t. 6 nr 1, s. 3–21.

Mikutta Christian A., Dürschmid Stefan, Bean Nelson, Lehne Moritz, Lubell James, Altorfer Andreas, Parvizi Josef, Strik Werner, Knight Robert T., Koelsch Stefan, Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Engagement in Breach and Resolution of Expectancy: A Case Study, „Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain” 2015 t. 25 nr 4, s. 357–365.

Mithen Steven J., The Music Instinct: The Evolutionary Basis of Musicality, „Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences” 2009 t. 1169 nr 1, s. 3–12.

Moreno Sylvain, Bidelman Gavin M., Examining Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Benefit through the Unique Lens of Musical Training, „Hearing Research” 2014 t. 308, s. 84–97.

Morley Iain, The Prehistory of Music: Human Evolution, Archaeology, and the Origins of Musicality, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013.

Nęcka Edward, Orzechowski Jarosław, Szymura Błażej, Psychologia poznawcza, Wydawnictwo PWN, Warszawa 2006.

Omigie Diana, Pearce Marcus, Samson Severine, Intracranial Evidence of the Modulation of the Emotion Network by Musical Structure, [w:] Proceedings of the Ninth Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, red. Jane Ginsborg, Alexandra Lamont,

Michelle Phillips, Stephanie Bramley, Royal Northern College of Music, Manchester 2015.

Opacic Tajana, Stevens Catherine, Tillmann Barbara, Unspoken Knowledge: Implicit Learning of Structured Human Dance Movement, „Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition” 2009 t. 35 nr 6, s. 1570–1577.

Pearce Marcus T., Ruiz María H., Kapasi Selina, Wiggins Geraint A., Bhattacharya Joydeep, Unsupervised Statistical Learning Underpins Computational, Behavioural, and Neural Manifestations of Musical Expectation, „Neuro-Image” 2010 t. 50 nr 1, s. 302–313.

Pearce Marcus T., Wiggins Geraint A., Expectation in Melody: The Influence of Context and Learning, „Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal” 2006 t. 23 nr 5, s. 377–405.

Perani Daniela, Saccuman Maria C., Scifo Paola, Spada Danilo, Andreolli Guido, Rovelli Rosanna, Baldoli Cristina, Koelsch Stefan, Functional Specializations for Music Processing in the Human Newborn Brain, „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America” 2010 t. 107 nr 10, s. 4758–4763.

Peretz Isabelle, Coltheart Max, Modularity of Music Processing, „Nature Neuroscience” 2003 t. 6 nr 7, s. 688–691.

Podlipniak Piotr, Egzogenne i endogenne aspekty struktury muzyki tonalnej, [w:] Psychologia muzyki pomiędzy wykonawcą a odbiorcą, red. Julia Kaleńska-Rodzaj, Rafał Lawendowski, Harmonia, Gdańsk 2015, s. 165–180.

Podlipniak Piotr, Instynkt tonalny: koncepcja ewolucyjnego pochodzenia tonalności muzycznej, Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, Poznań 2015.

Podlipniak Piotr, Między uniwersalnością, konwencjonalnością a indywidualnością języka muzycznego, [w:] Styl późny w muzyce, literaturze i kulturze, red. Ewa Borkowska, Eugeniusz Knapik, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Katowice 2006, s. 287–296.

Podlipniak Piotr, O ewolucyjnych źródłach niektórych muzycznych preferencji estetycznych, „Rocznik Kognitywistyczny” 2011 t. 5, s. 167–174.

Podlipniak Piotr, The Evolutionary Origin of Pitch Centre Recognition, „Psychology of Music” 2016 t. 44 nr 3, s. 527–543.

Podlipniak Piotr, The Role of the Baldwin Effect in the Evolution of Human Musicality, „Frontiers in Neuroscience” 2017 nr 11, nr art. 542.

Reber Arthur S., Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge, „Journal of Experimental Psychology: General” 1989 t. 118 nr 3, s. 219–235.

Reber Arthur S., Implicit Learning of Synthetic Languages: The Role of Instructional Set, „Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory” 1976 t. 2 nr 1, s. 88–94.

Reber Arthur S., Allen Rhainon, Reber Paul J., Implicit versus Explicit Learning, [w:] The Nature of Cognition, red. Robert J. Sternberg, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1999, s. 475–514.

Roederer Juan G., On the Concept of Information and Its Role in Nature, „Entropy” 2003 t. 5 nr 1, s. 3–33.

Sadowski Bogdan, Biologiczne mechanizmy zachowania się ludzi i zwierząt, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2012.

Sensory Systems of Primates, red. Charles R. Noback, Plenum Press, New York–London 1978.

Shannon Robert V., Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music?, „Trends in Cognitive Sciences” 2016 t. 20 nr 4, s. 245–247.

Simchy-Gross Rhimmon, Margulis Elizabeth H., The Sound-to-Music Illusion, „Music & Science” 2018 t. 1, s. 1–6.

Tillmann Barbara, Implicit Investigations of Tonal Knowledge in Nonmusician Listeners, „Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences” 2005 t. 1060, s. 100–110.

Tillmann Barbara, Bharucha Jamshed J., Bigand Emmanuel, Implicit Learning of Tonality: A Self-Organizing Approach, „Psychological Review” 2000 t. 107 nr 4, s. 885–913.

Todd Neil P., Cody Frederic W., Vestibular Responses to Loud Dance Music: A Physiological Basis of The ‘Rock and Roll Threshold’?, „The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America” 2000 t. 107 nr 1, s. 496–500.

Watson Stuart K., Townsend Simon W., Schel Anne M., Wilke Claudia, Wallace Emma K., Cheng Leveda, West Victoria, Slocombe Katie E., Vocal Learning in the Functionally Referential Food Grunts of Chimpanzees, „Current Biology” 2015 t. 25 nr 4, s. 495–499.

Wright Anthony A., Rivera Jacquelyne J., Hulse Stewart H., Shyan Melissa, Neiworth Julie J., Music Perception and Octave Generalization in Rhesus Monkeys, „Journal of Experimental Psychology” 2000 t. 129 nr 3, s. 291–307.

Zimmermann Elke, Leliveld Lisette, Schehka Simone, Toward the Evolutionary Roots of Affective Prosody in Human

Acoustic Communication: A Comparative Approach to Mammalian Voices, [w:] Evolution of Emotional Communication: From Sounds in Nonhuman Mammals to Speech and Music in Man, red. Eckart Altenmüller, Sabine Schmidt, Elke Zimmermann, Oxford University Press, Oxford–New York 2013, s. 116–132.