The sustainable development paradigm versus land concentration processes
PDF (English)

Słowa kluczowe

sustainable development
neoliberal development paradigm
land concentration processes

Jak cytować

Struś, M., & Raftowicz, M. (2023). The sustainable development paradigm versus land concentration processes. Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny I Socjologiczny, 85(3), 119–134.


The main purpose of this article is to answer the question of whether structural changes in agriculture are consistent with the concept of sustainable development. The adopted assumption is that both agriculture and all rural areas should develop in accordance with the paradigm of sustainable development, which means there is a need to abandon the mainstream neoliberal paradigm which currently dominates the economy. The research draws on the results of the Agricultural Censuses carried out in Poland in the years 2010 and 2020. As the conducted research shows, the processes of land ownership concentration in Polish agriculture are advancing, leading to the emergence of industrial agriculture, but contradicting the paradigm of sustainable development. These processes, however, have been occurring in an uneven manner, with their scale and dynamics depending on historical determinants. The concentration processes are predominantly noticeable in western and northern Poland, whereas in south-eastern and central Poland their pace is slower. This may result in the formation of a dual model of agricultural development in Poland, in which, on the one hand, industrial agriculture will function by striving to increase competitiveness through higher productivity, and, on the other, sustainable agriculture will also develop (in south-eastern and central Poland). Avoiding such a division would require a change in the approach to agricultural policy, primarily in terms of adjusting the tools aimed at influencing agriculture to regional conditions.
PDF (English)


Ardakani, Z., Bartolini, F., Brunori, G. (2020). New evaluation of small farms: implication for an analysis of food security. Agriculture 10(3): 74. DOI:

Becheva, S., Rioufol, V. (2019). Growing up. Agricultural Atlas 5(28): 36.

Binswanger, H.Ch. (2013). The Growth Spiral: Money, Energy, and Imagination in the Dynamics of the Market Process. Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London: Springer. DOI:

Birner, R., Resnick, D. (2010). The political economy of policies for smallholder agriculture. World Development 38(10): 1442–1452. DOI:

Gide, Ch. (1931). Principes d’economie politique.

Heller, M. (2011). Philosophy in Science: An Historical Introduction. Berlin: Springer.

Kiełczewski, D. (2021). Koncepcja zintegrowanej teorii ekonomicznej zrównoważonego rozwoju. Między mainstreamem a heterodoksją ekonomiczną [The Concept of Integrated Economic Theory of Sustainable Development – Between the Mainstream and Economic Heterodoxy]. Białystok: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku.

Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kuhn, T. (1977). The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. DOI:

Kutkowska, B. (ed.) (2018). Rolnictwo Wspierane Społecznie – badanie szans rozwoju małych gospodarstw rolnych na Dolnym Śląsku w aspekcie produkcji żywności wysokiej jakości [Socially Supported Agriculture: Research on the Development Opportunities of Small Farms in Lower Silesia in the Aspect of High-quality Food Production]. Wrocław: Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences.

Kutkowska, B., Berbeka, T., Kapała, A., Kurtyka-Marcak, I., Minta, S., Raftowicz-Filipkiewicz, M., Struś M. (eds.), Raftowicz-Filipkiewicz M. (2016). Procesy koncentracji ziemi i kapitału a zrównoważony rozwój obszarów wiejskich na Dolnym Śląsku [Processes of Land and Capital Concentration vs. Sustainable Development of Rural Areas in Lower Silesia]. Wrocław: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu, Instytut Nauk Ekonomicznych i Społecznych.

Latouche, S. (2010). Le pari de la décroissance. Paris: Pluriel.

Le Vay, C. (1983). Agricultural co-operative theory. The Review Journal of Agricultural Economics 34(1): 1–44. DOI:

Małysz, J. (2002). Rozwój agrobiznesu a procesy integracyjne (cz. II) [The development of agribusiness and integration processes (part II)]. Wieś i Rolnictwo 1(114): 25–49.

Matysiak, A., Struś, M. (2015). Paradygmat rozwoju zrównoważonego [The paradigm of sustainable development]. Studia Ekonomiczne. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach 213: 11–21.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2019). Rolnictwo i gospodarka żywnościowa w Polsce [Agriculture and Food Economy in Poland].

North, D.C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI:

Nowak, L. (1987). A model of socialist society. Studies in Soviet Thought 34(1/2): 1–55. DOI:

Raftowicz, M. (2021). The climate crisis as a product of globalization. SHS Web of Conferences 92: 06029. DOI:

Raftowicz, M., Struś, M., Nadolny, M., Kalisiak-Mędelska, M. (2020). The importance of price in Poland’s carp market. Sustainability 12(24): 10416. DOI:

Rockström, J. et al. (2009). Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecology and Society 14(2): 32. DOI:

Rynio, D. (2013). Kształtowanie nowej polityki regionalnej Polski w warunkach globalizacji i integracji [Developing New Regional Policy of Poland in the Conditions of Globalization and Integration]. Wrocław: Wrocław University of Economics Press.

Sandel, M. (2012). What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. New York: Farrar.

Solarz, K., Raftowicz, M., Kachniarz, M., Dradrach, A. (2023). Back to locality? Demand potential analysis for short food supply chains. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20(4): 3641. DOI:

Struś, M. (2018). Rolnictwo wspierane przez społeczność – przykład innowacji konstruktywnych na obszarach wiejskich [Community supported agriculture – an example of constructive innovation in rural areas]. Problemy Drobnych Gospodarstw Rolnych 1: 63–71. DOI:

Struś, M., Kalisiak-Mędelska, M., Nadolny, M., Kachniarz, M., Raftowicz, M. (2020). Community-supported agriculture as a perspective model for the development of small agricultural holding in the region. Sustainability 12(7): 2656. DOI:

Szymańska, E.J. (2021). Zmiany struktury agrarnej na polskiej wsi w latach 1918–2018 [Changes in the agrarian structure of the Polish countryside in the years 1918–2018]. Zeszyty Wiejskie 27: 31–58. DOI:

Zegar, J.S. (2009). Kwestia koncentracji ziemi w polskim rolnictwie indywidualnym [The issue of land concentration in Polish individual farming]. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych. Series G 96(4): 256–266.