Uwagi o Owidiuszu i złotym wieku Augusta

Main Article Content

Adam Łukaszewicz

Abstrakt

Publius Ovidius Naso was an outstanding poet of the Augustan age who after a period of successful activity was suddenly sent to exile without a formal judicial procedure. Ovid wrote frivolous poems but inserted into his works also the obligatory praises of Augustus. The standard explanation of his relegation to Tomis is the licentious content of his Ars Amatoria, which were believed to offend the moral principles of Augustus. However, the Ars had been published several years before the exile. The poet himself in his Pontic writings mentions an unspecified error and a carmen, pointing also to the Ars, without, however, a clear explanation of the reason for his fall. The writer of the present contribution assumes that the actual reason for the relegation of the poet without a trial were the verses of his Metamorphoses and especially the passage about the wicked stepmothers preparing poison. That could offend Livia who, according to gossip, used poison to get rid of unwanted family members. Ovid was exiled, but the matter was too delicate for a public justification of the banishment. When writing ex Ponto the poet could not explicitly refer to the actual cause of his exile.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Dział
COMMENTATIONES

Bibliografia

  1. Primary sources
  2. Augustus. Meine Taten/Res gestae. Ed. by E. Ackermann. 2017. Köln.
  3. Secondary sources
  4. Anderson, Parsons, Nisbet 1979: Anderson, R. D., Parsons, P. J., Nisbet, R.G.M. 1979. “Elegiacs by Gallus from Qasr Ibrim.” The Journal of Roman Studies 69: 125–155.
  5. Anonymus 1773: Anonymous. “Réfutation des conjectures de M. Poinsinet de Sivry sur la cause de l’exil d’Ovide.” Journal Encyclopédique VII: 134–146.
  6. Baccani 1992: Baccani, D. 1992. Oroscopi greci. Documentazione papirologica. Messina.
  7. Bureth 1964: Bureth, P. 1964. Les titulatures impériales dans les papyrus, les ostraca et les inscriptions d’Égypte (30 a.C. – 284 p. C.). Bruxelles.
  8. Canfora 2006: Canfora, L. 2006. Giulio Cesare. Il dittatore democratico. Roma.
  9. Carcopino 1964: Carcopino, J. 1964. “Les raisons religieuses de l’exil d’Ovide.” Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 165: 132–139.
  10. Cavafis 2013: Cavafis, C. 2013. Poesie. Ed. by F. M. Pontani. Milano.
  11. Chwalek 1996: Chwalek, B. 1996. Die Verwandlung des Exils in die elegische Welt. Studien zu den Tristia und Epistulae ex Ponto Ovids. Frankfurt am Main.
  12. Garlow 1936: Garlow, L. W. 1936. “A Guess as to Why Ovid Was Exiled.” The Classical Journal XXXII (2): 103–105.
  13. Gold 2004: Gold, R. D. 2004. “Iovis Ira: Allusion and the Relegation of Ovid.” In Daimonopylai Essays in Classics and the Classical Tradition presented to Edmund G, Berry. Ed. by R. B. Egan, M. Joyal, 127–142. Winnipeg.
  14. Goodman 1997: Goodman, M. 1997. The Roman World 44 BC–AD 180. London-New York.
  15. Hutchinson 2017: Hutchinson, G. O. 2017. “Some New and Old Light on Reasons for Ovid’s Exile.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 203: 76–84.
  16. Herklotz 2007: Herklotz, F. 2007. Prinzeps und Pharao. Der Kult des Augustus in Ägypten. Frankfurt am Main.
  17. Horváth 1958: Horváth, I. K. 1958. “Impius Aeneas.” Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae VI: 385–393.
  18. Ingleheart 2011: Ingleheart, J. 2011. A Commentary on Ovid. Tristia. Book 2. Oxford.
  19. Jellonek 2017: Jellonek, Sz. 2017. “Capricorn and the star – the astrological symbols of Augustus.” In Augustus. From Republic to Empire. Ed. by G. Bąkowska-Czerner and J. Bodzek, 74–82. Oxford.
  20. Levick 1976: Levick, B. 1976. “The Fall of Julia the Younger.” Latomus 35: 301–339.
  21. Levick 2010: Levick, B. 2010. Augustus. Image and Substance. Harlow.
  22. Licandro 2008: Licandro, O. 2008. Aegyptum imperio populi Romani adieci: L’Egitto e la sua prefettura fra conservazione e innovazione nella politica Augustea. Napoli.
  23. Lundström 1980: Lundström, S. 1980. Ovids Metamorphoseon und die Politik des Kaisers. Uppsala.
  24. Łukaszewicz 1984: Łukaszewicz, A. 1984. “Otoczenie Augusta i wielka własność ziemska w Egipcie.” Meander 1: 23–31.
  25. Łukaszewicz 2005: Łukaszewicz, A. 2005. Kleopatra. Ostatnia królowa starożytnego Egiptu. Warszawa.
  26. Łukaszewicz 2006: Łukaszewicz, A. 2006. Egipt Greków i Rzymian. Warszawa.
  27. Łukaszewicz 2007: Łukaszewicz, A. 2007. “Cezar w Egipcie.” In Grecy, Rzymianie i ich sąsiedzi, Antiquitas XXIX. Ed by K. Nawotka et al., 443–452. Wrocław.
  28. Łukaszewicz 2015: Łukaszewicz, A. 2015. “Fata mihi Caesar... Kilka uwag o Korneliuszu Gallusie.” In Charisteria Aliciae Szastyńska-Siemion octogenariae oblata ab amicis, collegis, discipulis. Ed. by G. Malinowski and M. Wróbel, 192–195. Wrocław.
  29. Łukaszewicz 2016: Łukaszewicz, A. 2016. “Remarks on Mars Ultor, Octavian and Egypt.” In Mater familias. Scritti romanistici per Maria Zabłocka. JJP Supplement XXIX. Ed. by Z. Benincasa et al., 487–499. Varsavia.
  30. Łukaszewicz 2016a: Łukaszewicz, A. 2016a. “Ptolemy XII and the Romans – an Alexandrian money story.” The Polish Journal of Arts and Culture, New Series 3 (1): 29–39.
  31. Łukaszewicz 2017: Łukaszewicz, A. 2017. “Octavian in Egypt. Propaganda and graffiti.” In Augustus. From Republic to Empire. Ed. by G. Bąkowska-Czerner, J. Bodzek, 100–106. Oxford.
  32. Łukaszewicz 2018: Łukaszewicz, A. 2018. “Głowa Pompejusza i inne ślady spotkania Rzymian z Egiptem.” In Wybitni Rzymianie u schyłku Republiki. Gnejusz Pompejusz Wielki (106–48 p. Chr.). Ed. by N. Rogosz, 183–189. Katowice.
  33. Mac Keown 1984: Mac Keown, J. C. 1984. “Fabula proposito nulla tegenda meo.” In Poetry and Politics in the Age of Augustus. Ed. by A. J. Woodman and D. West, 169–187. Cambridge.
  34. Maleuvre 1995: Maleuvre, J.-Y. 1995. “Les Odes romaines d’Horace, ou un chef d’oeuvre ignoré de la cacozélie (presque) invisible.” Revue belge de Philologie et d’histoire 73: 53–72. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1970. Ed. by N. G. L. Hammond, H. H. Scullard. Oxford.
  35. Sauneron 1959: Sauneron, S. 1959. “Maat.” In Dictionnaire de la civilisation égyptienne. Ed. By G. Posener et al., 156. Paris.
  36. Sauneron 1959a: Sauneron, S. 1959. “Nout.” In Dictionnaire de la civilisation égyptienne. Ed. By G. Posener et al., 192. Paris.
  37. Schoemann 1882: Schoemann, G. 1882. “Eine Muthmassung über den wahren Grund von Ovids Relegation.” Philologus XLI: 171–175.
  38. Syme 1978: Syme, R. 1978. History in Ovid. London.
  39. Śnieżewski 1993: Śnieżewski, S. A. 1993. Problem boskości Oktawiana Augusta w poezji augustowskiej. Kraków.
  40. Terio 2006: Terio, S. 2006. Der Steinbock als Herrschaftszeichen des Augustus. “Orbis Antiquus” Bd 41. Ed. by Horst-Dieter Blume. Münster.
  41. Thibault 1964: Thibault, J. C. 1964. The mystery of Ovid’s exile. Berkeley.
  42. Wallace-Hadrill 1987: Wallace-Hadrill, A. 1987. “Time for Augustus: Ovid, Augustus and the Fasti.” In Homo Viator: Classical Essays for John Bramble. Ed. by M. Whitby et al., 221–230. Bristol.
  43. Watson 1995: Watson, P. A. 1995. Ancient Stepmothers: Myth, Misogyny and Reality. Leiden.
  44. Yoyotte 1959: Yoyotte, J. 1959. “Hathor.” In Dictionnaire de la civilisation égyptienne. Ed. By G. Posener et al., 127. Paris.
  45. Ziolkowski 2005: Ziolkowski, Th. 2005. Ovid and the Moderns. Ithaca and London.