The impact of input, input repetition, and task repetition on L2 lexical use and fluency in speaking


input repetition
lexical use
task repetition

How to Cite

Duong, P.-T., Montero Perez, M., Nguyen, L.-Q., Desmet, P., & Peters, E. (2023). The impact of input, input repetition, and task repetition on L2 lexical use and fluency in speaking. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 13(1), 101–124.

Number of views: 828

Number of downloads: 976


The present study investigates the impact of meaningful input on L2 learners’ vocabulary use and their fluency in oral performance (immediate and repeat tasks), as well as whether the effects are mediated by learners’ prior vocabulary knowledge and working memory. Ninety university students learning English as a foreign language were randomly assigned to one of three groups: input (N = 29), input repetition (N = 32), and no-input (i.e., baseline group) (N = 29). The input group watched L2 videos prior to performing an immediate oral task, whereas the input repetition group watched the same videos not only before but also after the immediate oral task. The no-input group only performed the oral tasks without watching the videos. The three groups repeated the same oral task after two days. Results did not show a significant effect of task repetition, input, and input repetition on learners’ lexical use and fluency. However, the fluency and lexical complexity in learners’ L2 speech can be predicted by their receptive vocabulary knowledge and working memory capacity to some extent.


Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36(3), 189-208. DOI:

Bakdash, J. Z., & Marusich, L. R. (2017). Repeated measures correlation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(456). DOI:

Brysbaert, M., & New, B. (2009). Moving beyond Kučera and Francis: A critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 977-990. DOI:

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2012). PRAAT. Retrieved May 12, 2012 from http://

Boston, J. S. (2008). Learner mining of pre-task and task input. ELT Journal, 62(1), 66-76. DOI:

Bygate, M. (1996). Effects of task repetition: Appraising the developing language of learners. In J. Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp. 136-146). MacMillan Heinemann.

Bygate, M. (2018). Introduction. In Bygate, M. (Ed.), Learning language through task repetition (pp. 1-25). John Benjamins. DOI:

Bygate, M., & Samuda, V. (2005). Integrative planning through the use of task repetition. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Planning and task performance in second language (pp. 37-74). John Benjamins. DOI:

Clenton, J., de Jong, N. H., Clingwall, D., & Fraser, S. (2020). Vocabulary knowledge and skills can predict aspects of fluency for a small group of pre-intermediate Japanese L1 users of English (L2). In Clenton, J. & Booth, P. (Eds.), Vocabulary and the four skills: Pedagogy, practice, and implications for teaching vocabulary (pp. 146-165). Routledge. DOI:

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., McNamara, D. S., & Jarvis, S. (2011). Predicting lexical proficiency in language learner texts using computational indices. Language Testing, 28(4), 561-580. DOI:

Crossley, S. A., Cobb, T., McNamara, D. S. (2013). Comparing count-based and band-based indices of word frequency: Implications for active vocabulary research and pedagogical applications. System, 411(4), 965-981. DOI:

De Jong, N. H. (2016). Predicting pauses in L1 and L2 speech: The effects of utterance boundaries and word frequency. IRAL-International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 54(2), 113-132. DOI:

De Jong, N. H., & Wemp, T. (2009). Praat script to detect syllable nuclei and measure speech rate automatically. Behavior Research Methods, 41(2), 385-390. DOI:

De Jong, N. H., & Bosker, H. R. (2013). Choosing a threshold for silent pauses to measure second language fluency. In Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DiSS) (pp. 17-20). Royal Institute of Technology.

Durbahn Quinteros, M., Rodgers, M., & Peters, E. (2019). The relationship between vocabulary and viewing comprehension. System, 88, 1-38. DOI:

Duong, P.-T., Montero Perez, M., Desmet, P., & Peters, E. (2021a). Learning vocabulary in spoken input- and output-based tasks. TASK 1(1), 100-126. DOI:

Duong, P.-T., Montero Perez, M., Nguyen, L.-Q., Desmet, P., & Peters, E. (2021b). Incidental lexical mining in task repetition: The role of input, input repetition and individual differences. System, 103, 1026-1050. DOI:

Duong, P.-T., & Le, H. H. V. (2022). How working memory and prior vocabulary knowledge influence the impact of task repetition on L2 oral performance: Insights into Vietnamese EFL learners. Teaching English as a Second Language Electronic Journal (TESL-EJ), 26(3). DOI:

Ellis, R., Skehan, P., Li, S., Shintani, N., & Lambert, C. (2020). Task-based language teaching: Theory and practice. Cambridge University Press. DOI:

Enayat, M. J., & Derakhshan, A. (2021). Vocabulary size and depth as predictors of second language speaking ability. System.

Fehringer, C., & Fry, C. (2007). Hesitation phenomena in the language production of bilingual speakers: The role of working memory. Folia Linguistica: Acta Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae, 41(1-2), 37-72. DOI:

French, L. (2004). Phonological working memory and L2 acquisition: A developmental study of Francophone children learning English in Quebec. Edwin Mellen Press.

Fukuta, J. (2016). Effects of task repetition on learners’ attention orientation in L2 oral production. Language Teaching Research, 20, 321-340. DOI:

Foster, P., Tonkyn, A., & Wigglesworth, G. (2000). Measuring spoken language: A unit for all reasons. Applied Linguistics, 21, 354-375. DOI:

Gass, S., Macket, A., Alvarez-Torres, M., & Fernández-García, M. (1999). The effects of task repetition on linguistic output. Language Learning, 49(4), 549-581. DOI:

Hoang, H., & Boers, F. (2016). Re-telling a story in a second language: How well do adult learners mine an input text for multiword expressions? Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 513-535. DOI:

Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137-166. DOI:

Kang, O., Rubin, D., & Pickering, L. (2010). Suprasegmental measures of accentedness and judgments of language learner proficiency in oral English. Modern Language Journal, 94, 554-566. DOI:

Khatib, M., & Farahanynia, M. (2020). Planning conditions (strategic planning, task repetition, and joint planning), cognitive task complexity, and task type: Effects on L2 oral performance. System, 93. DOI:

Kim, Y., Crossley, S., Yung, Y., Kyle, K., & Kang, S. (2018). The effects of task repetition and task complexity on L2 lexical use. In M. Bygate (Ed.), Learning language though task repetitions (pp. 75-96). John Benjamins. DOI:

Kyle, K., & Crossley, S. A. (2015). Automatically assessing lexical sophistication: Indices, tools, findings, and application. TESOL Quarterly, 49(4), 757-786. DOI:

Kyle, K. (2020). Measuring lexical richness. In S. Webb (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of vocabulary studies (pp. 454-476). Routledge. DOI:

Kyle, K., Crossley, A. S., & Jarvis, S. (2020). Assessing the validity of lexical diversity indices using direct judgements. Language Assessment Quarterly, 18(2), 154-170. DOI:

Laufer, B., & Nation, P. (1995). Vocabulary size and use: Lexical richness in L2 written production. Applied Linguistics, 16(3), 307-322. DOI:

Laufer, B., & Nation, P. (1999). A vocabulary-size test of controlled productive ability. Language Testing, 16(1), 33-51. DOI:

Lambert, C., Kormos, J., & Minn, D. (2017). Task repetition and second language speech processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39(1), 167-196. DOI:

Lambert, C., Aubrey, S., Leeming, P. (2020). Task preparation and second language speech production. TESOL Quarterly. DOI:

Levelt, W. J. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. MIT Press.

Lynch, T. (2018). Perform, reflect, recycle: Enhancing task repetition in second language speaking classes. In M. Bygate (Ed.), Learning language through task repetition (pp. 193-222). John Benjamins. DOI:

Malvern, D., & Richards, B. (2002). Investigating accommodation in language proficiency interviews using a new measure of lexical diversity. Language Testing, 19(1), 85-104. DOI:

Meara, P., & Fitzpatrick, T. (2000). Lex30: An improved method of assessing productive vocabulary in an L2. System, 28, 19-30. DOI:

Miller, L. M. S., Cohen, J. A., & Wingfield, A. (2006). Contextual knowledge reduces demands on working memory during reading. Memory & Cognition, 34, 1355-1367. DOI:

Montero Perez, M. (2020). Incidental vocabulary learning through viewing video: The role of vocabulary knowledge and working memory. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(4), 749-773. DOI:

Nguyen, L. T. C., & Nation, P. (2011). A bilingual vocabulary size test of English for Vietnamese learners. RELC Journal, 42(1), 86-99. DOI:

Nguyen, C. D., & Boers, F. (2018). The effect of content retelling on vocabulary uptake from a TED Talk. TESOL Quarterly, 53(1), 5-29. DOI:

O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Collentine, J., & Freed, B. (2006). Phonological memory and lexical, narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 377-402. DOI:

Pawlak, M. (2021). Investigating individual learner differences in second language learning. Springer. DOI:

R Core Team (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing (Version 4.0.1) [Computer software]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Skehan, P. (2003). Task based instruction. Language Teaching, 36, 1-14. DOI:

Skehan, P. (2009). Modelling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics, 30(4), 510-532. DOI:

Tavakoli, P., & Wright, C. (2020). Second language speech fluency: From research to practice. Cambridge University Press. DOI:

Thai, C., & Boers, F. (2016). Repeating a monologue under increasing time pressure: Effects on fluency, complexity, and accuracy. TESOL Quarterly, 50(2), 369-393. DOI:

Uchihara, T., & Clenton, J. (2018). Investigating the role of vocabulary size in second language speaking ability. Language Teaching Research, 24(4), 540-556. DOI:

Uchihara, T., & Saito, K. (2019). Exploring the relationship between productive vocabulary knowledge and second language oral ability. Language Learning Journal, 47(1), 64-75. DOI:

Wang, Z. (2014). Online time pressure manipulations: L2 speaking performance under five types of planning and repetition conditions. In P. Skehan (Ed.), Processing Perspectives on Task Performance (pp. 27-61). John Benjamins. DOI:

Webb, S. (2020). Incidental vocabulary learning. In S. Webb (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of vocabulary studies (pp. 225-239). Routledge. DOI:

Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. Addison-Wesley.