On the shores of the Persian Gulf. British-Ottoman relations during the reign of Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909)

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Andrzej Malinowski


The main purpose of the article is an attempt to present the relationship that occurred between London and Constantinople during the reign of Abdülhamid II within in the Persian Gulf region and to show the effects of the British policy, which greatly limited the Ottoman sovereignty in the area. The Ottoman forces conquered Arabia and the Persian Gulf during the era of the Süleyman I. The influence of the Ottomans had loosened to a great extent in the following ages. Britain emerged as the winner of the showdown among the Western Great Powers in the Gulf in the 19th century and subsequently it established its supremacy over the region. The Anglo-Ottoman relations relations greatly deteriorated with the beginning of Abdülhamid II`s rule. The British menace to the Ottoman existence in the Gulf was the consequence of the shift in the British policy aiming at the breakdown and disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Evidence of the British threat to the Ottoman presence in the region was that Britain, in principle, did not want any challenge to its supremacy in the region, so it thwarted all foreign interventions into the Gulf.


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Malinowski, A. (2014). On the shores of the Persian Gulf. British-Ottoman relations during the reign of Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909). Balcanica Posnaniensia. Acta Et Studia, 21, 151-162. https://doi.org/10.14746/bp.2014.21.10


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