Incipient Musings on Theory and Formation of Modern Korean Digraphia

Jak cytować

Strnad, W. (2019). Incipient Musings on Theory and Formation of Modern Korean Digraphia. Investigationes Linguisticae, 40, 25–48.


This article explores modern Korean digraphia, its chracteristics, duality and formation. The author posits that the essential axis of argumentation of the Korean digraphic debate related to the applications of Chinese characters and Korean phonetic script was formed by the early part of the twentieth century, and would be recapitulated in the two Koreas against the backdrop of post-colonial metanarration and Cold War politics. The author asserts that the functional and synchronic nature of modern Korean digraphia was formed under the influence of the Lyotardian modernity emancipation and speculative (science) metanarratives, as well as the discourse of modern Korean nationalism, which synchronically formed in the Korean assertion of national identity and idependence, during Koreaʼs struggle against imperialism.


Auerbach, Yehudith 2010. National Narratives in a Conflict of Identity. In: Barriers to Peace in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Ed. Yaacov Bar-Siman-Tov. 99-134. Jerusalem: The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies.

Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Barker, Chris; Dariusz Galasiński. 2001. Cultural Studies and Discourse Analysis: A Dialogue on Language and Identity. London & Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Berlanda, Elena 2006. New Perspectives on Digraphia: A Framework for the Sociolinguistics of Writing Systems. Major research paper. Toronto: York University.

Bhat, M. Ashraf 2017. The Changing Language Roles and Linguistic Identities of the Kashmiri Speech Community. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Bostad, Finn; Craig Brandist; Lars Siegfried Evensen; and Hege Charlotte Faber 2004. Introduction: Thinking Culture Dialogically. In: Bakhtian Perspectives on Language and Culture: Meaning in Language, Art and New Media. Eds. Finn Bostad; Craig Brandist; Lars Siegfried Evensen; and Hege Charlotte Faber. 1-19. Hampshire and New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Canakis, Costas 2018. Contesting Identity in the Linguistic Landscape of Belgrade: An Ethnographic Approach. Belgrade English Language and Literature Studies (BELLS), Vol. 10, 229-258.

Dale, Ian R. H. 1980. Digraphia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 26, 5-13.

DeFrancis, John 1984. Digraphia. Word, Vol. 35, No. 1, 59-66.

de Saussure, Ferdinand 1916, 2011. Course in General Linguistics. Eds. Perry Meisel and Haun Saussy. Trans. Wade Baskin. New York: Columbia University Press.

Duara, Prasenjit 1995. Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Eisenstein, Sergei M. 1949, 1977. Film Form: Essays in Film Theory. Ed. and Trans., Jay Leyda. San Diego, CA, New York and London: Harcourt, Inc.

Em, Henry H. 1999a. Nationalism, Post-Nationalism, and Shin Ch’ae-ho. Korea Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2, Summer 1999, 283-317.

Em, Henry H. 1999b. Minjok as a Modern and Democratic Construct: Sin Ch’aeho’s Historiography of Korea. In: Colonial Modernity in Korea. Eds. Gi-Wook Shin and Michael E. Robinson. 336-361. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.

Fairclough, Norman 1995, 2010. Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. Second Edition. Abingdon, Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Ferguson, Charles A. 1959. Diglossia. Word, Vol. 15, No. 2, 325-340.

Grivelet, Stéphane 2001. Introduction. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 150, 1-10.

Gurdin, Julie E. 1994. The Dialogic and the Semiotic: Bakhtin, Volosinov, Pierce, and Sociolinguistics. Arizona Anthropologist, Vol. 11, 57-69.

Haarmann, Harald 1993. The Emergence of Korean Script as a Symbol of Korean National Identity. In: The Earliest Stage of Language Planning: The “First Congress” Phenomenon. Ed. Joshua A. Fishman. 143-158. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hall, Stuart (1996) For Allon White: Metaphors of Transformation. In: Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Eds. David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen. 286-305. London: Routledge.

Halverson, Jeffrey R; H. Lloyd Goodall Jr.; Steven R. Corman 2011. Master Narratives of Islamist Extremism. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Hannas, William C. 1997. Asia’s Orthographic Dilemma. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Hayward, Susan 2013. Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts. Fourth Edition. Abingdon, Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Janasiak, Christoph Jan. 2012. Wczesna prasa – modernizacja pisma i języka [The modern Korean press – modernization of writing and language]. Warsaw: Linguistica Asiatica Orientalia.

Kang, Man-gil 1994, 2006. Koch’yŏ ssŭn Han’guk kŭndaesa [A corrected writing of modern Korean history]. Seoul: Ch’angbi.

Kim, Min-su 1973. Kuk’ŏ chŏngch’aekron [Discussing national language policy]. Seoul: Koryŏdaehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu.

Kim, Yŏng-hwal 1978. Chosŏnminjokŏ’baljŏnsayŏn’gu [A study on the developmental history of the Korean national language]. Ed. Ik-sŏ Ri. P’yŏngyang: Kwahak-baekgwa sajŏnch’ulp’ansa.

King, Ross. 1998. Nationalism and Language Reform in Korea: The Questione della Lingua in Precolonial Korea. In: Nationalism and the Construction of the Korean Identity. Eds. Hyung Il Pai and Timothy R. Tangherlini. 33-72. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California.

Knowles, Steve 2001. Postmodernism: Reasons to be Cheerful! In: Transforming Exclusion: Engaging Faith Perspectives. Eds. Hannah Bacon and Wayne Morris with Steve Knowles. 1-14. London and New York: T&T Clark International.

Levenson, Joseph R. 1958, 1968. Confucian China and Its Modern Fate: A Trilogy. First Combined Edition. Berkeley, CA and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Lew, Young Ick 1992. Kabogyŏngjang’yŏn’gu [Studies on the Kabo reforms]. Vol. 1. Seoul: Hallimdaehak’yo asiamunhwayŏn’guso.

Lew, Young Ick 2001. The Tonghak Uprising and the Kabo Reforms. Lectures presented at Yonsei University, Graduate School of International Studies (GSIS), in Seoul, October 2001.

Lyotard, Jean-François 1979, 1984. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Trans. Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Theory and History of Literature, Vol. 10. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Lyotard, Jean-François 1988. L’inhumain: Causeries sur le temps [The inhuman: Reflections on time]. Paris: Galilee.

Malpas, Simon 2005. The Postmodern. London and New York: Routledge.

Miriam-Webster Dictionary 2017. 9 February 2017).

Rivlina, Alexandra 2015. Global English-related Digraphia and Roman-Cyrillic Biscriptal Practices. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 236, December 2016, 207-212.

Kongmunsik (Edict on Public Writing) 1894. In: Kab’ogyŏngjang (Kabo reforms).

Pak Chong-guk 2012. Uri kuk’ŏhaksa [The history of the studies of our national language]. Seoul: Sejonghakwŏn'guwŏn. G. Pak 2012.

Pieper, Daniel O. 2011. Han’gul for the Nation, the Nation for Han’gul: The Korean Language Movement, 1894-1945. Master’s thesis. Washington University, St. Louis, MO.

Polletta, Francisca 1998. “It Was like a Fever ...” Narrative and Identity in Social Protest. Social Problems, Vol. 45, No. 2, May 1998), 137-159.

Ri, Chong-hyŏn 1991. Chosŏnburŭjoaminjokundongsa [History of Korea’s bourgeois movement]. P’yŏngyang: Kwahakbaekgwasajŏnjonghapch’ulp’ansa.

Ricoeur, Paul 1980. Narrative Time. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 7, No. 1, On Narrative, Autumn 1980, 169-190.

Robinson, Michael E. 1986. Nationalism and the Korean Tradition, 1896-1920: Iconoclasm, Reform, and National Identity. Korean Studies, Vol. 10, 35-53.

Robinson, Michael E. 1988. Cultural Nationalism in Colonial Korea, 1920-1925. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Shin, Gi-Wook 2006. Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, Politics and Legacy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Song, Jae Jung 1994. Language Policies in North and South Korea: Divergence and Convergence. Language Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 1, Summer/Fall, 205-212.J. J. Song, 1994: 206).

Schmid, Andre 2002. Korea Between Empires, 1895-1919. New York: Columbia University Press.

Schultz, William 1998. The Ambivalence of Out Postmodern Condition: Lyotard’s Diagnosis and Prognosis. (Originally published in Greek in the journal Diavazo, September 1998, 66-80. (accessed on 14 April 2018).

Siekmeier, James F. 2017. Latin American Nationalism: Identity in a Globalizing World. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Shim, Jae Kee 1998. Kukhanja hon’yong-ŭi t’adangsŏng-e kwanhan yŏn’gu [A study on the validity of mixed-script]. Kwan’ak’ŏyŏn’gu [Kwan’ak language research]. Vol. 23, 5-39. Seoul: Seouldaehakyo kuk’ŏkungmunhakgwa.

Shim, Jae Kee 2004. Kunhanhonyongnon-ŭi yŏksa, munhwajŏk paegyŏng [A historical and cultural background to the han’gŭl-hanja mixed script]. In: Hanjagyoyuk-gwa hanjajŏngch’aek-e taehan kukjehaksulhoeŭi [International conference on the education and policy of Chinese characters]. 71-103. Seoul: Han᾿guk᾿ŏ᾿mun᾿gyoyuk᾿yŏn᾿guhoe.

Shin, Yong-ha 1976. Tongniphyŏphoe-wa kaehwaundong [The independence club and enlightenment movement]. Seoul: Sejongdaewang’kinyŏmsaŏphoe.

Shin, Yong-ha 1984. Minjok hyŏngsŏng-ŭi iron [Theory of the formation of the nation]. Han’guk sanhoe yŏn’gu [Society of sociological research] No. 7. Seoul: Seoul National University.

Shin, Yong-ha 1986. 1894nyŏn-ŭi sahoesinbunje-ŭi p’yeji [The 1894 termination of the social status system]. Kyujanggak, Vol. 9, 49-84. Seoul:

Shin, Yong-ha 2000. Modern Korean History and Nationalism. Trans. N. M. (Mohan) Pankaj. Seoul: Jimoondang Publishing Company.

Smith, Anthony D. 2009. Ethno-symbolism and Nationalism: A Cultural Approach. London and New York: Routledge.

Somers, Margaret R. 1992. Narrativity, Narrative Identity, and Social Action: Rethinking English Working-Class Formation. Social Science History, Vol. 16, No. 4, Winter 1992, 591-630.

Somers, Margaret R. 1994. The Narrative Constitution of Identity: A Relational and Network Approach. Theory and Society, Vol. 23, No. 5, October 1994, 605-649.

Stephens, John; Robyn McCallum 1998. Retelling Stories, Framing Culture: Traditional Story and Metanarratives in Childrenʼs Literature. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Strnad, William 2016. On Shadow and Form: Korean Nationalism’s Digraphic Conflict. International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences, Vo. 2, 87-121.

Thompson, Paul 2012. Both Dialogic and Dialectic: “Translation at the Crossroads”. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, Vol. 1, Issue 2, June 2012, 90-101.

Unger, J. Marshall 2001. Functional Digraphia in Japan as Revealed in Consumer Product Preferences. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 150, 141-152. Unger, 2001.

Unseth, Peter 2005. Sociolinguistic Parallels between Choosing Scripts and Languages. Written Language and Literacy, Vol. 8, No. 1, 19-42.

Vološinov, Valentin N. 1929, 1973. Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. Tr. Ladislav Matejka and I. R. Titunik. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, Lev S. 1934, 1986. Thought and Language. Revised Edition. Tr. Eugenia Hanfmann and Gertrude Vakar. Ed. Alex Kozulin. Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press.

Wallerstein, Immanuel 1990. Culture as the Ideological Battleground of the Modern World. In: Global Culture. Ed. Mike Featherstone. 31-56. New York: Sage Publications.

Wang, Sixiang 2014. The Sounds of Our Country: Interpreters, Linguistic Knowledge, and the Politics of Language in Early Chosŏn. In: Rethinking East Asian Languages, Vernaculars, and Literacies. 58-95. Ed. Benjamin A. Elman. Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill.

White, Hayden 1973, 2014. Meta-History: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth Century Europe. Fortieth Anniversary Edition. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

White, Hayden 1980. The Value of Narrativity in the Representation of Reality. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 7, No. 1, On Narrative, Autumn 1980, 5-27.

White, Hayden 1984. The Question of Narrative in Contemporary Historical Theory. History and Theory, Vol. 23, No.1, February 1984, 1-33.

Wodak, Ruth 2007. “Pragmatics and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry”. Pragmatics & Cognition, Vol. 15, No. 1, 203-225.Wodak, 2007.

Yi, Eung-ho 1974. Mi kunjŏnggi-ŭi hang’ŭl undongsa [History of the Han’gŭl movement during the period of the United States interim military government]. Seoul: Sŏngch’ŏngsa.

Yi, Hye-ryŏng 2005. Hanjainsik-gwa kŭndae-ŭi naesŏnŏllit’i [Knowledge of hanja and nationality of modern language]. In: Minjokmunhaksayŏn’gu [Research on the history of national culture]. Vol. 29, 210-241. Seoul: Minjok munhak sahakhoe.

Yi, Ki-mun 1987. Han’gŭl-ŭi yŏn’gu-wa pogŭp [Research on and dissemination of han’gŭl]. In: Han minjok tongnip undongsa [A history of the independence movement of the Korean nation], Vol. 2. Ed. Kuksa p’yŏnch’an wiwŏnhoe. 102-127. Seoul: Kuksa p’yŏnch’an wiwŏnhoe.

Yŏnseidae on’ŏjŏngboyŏn’guwŏn HKsaŏpdan 2012. Kŭndae kyemong kuk’ŏkungmun tamnon-ŭi hyŏndaejŏk haesŏk-ŭl wihayŏ [Unraveling Korean literature: For a contemporary interpretation of Korean language discourse during the modern enlightenment period]. Seoul: Pakijongch’ulp’ansa.

Zíma, Petr 1974. Digraphia: The Case of Hausa. Linguistics, Vol. 124, 57-69.