Pozyskiwanie studentów zagranicznych do uczelni krajów półperyferyjnych. Badanie porównawcze Norwegii, Polski i Portugalii

Main Article Content

Dominik Antonowicz
Catrina Sin
Jannecke Wiers-Jenssen

Abstrakt

W artykule zbadano podejścia zastosowane w celu przyciągnięcia międzynarodowych studentów w trzech krajach leżących na obrzeżach Europy (Europejskiego Obszaru Gospodarczego): Norwegii, Polski i Portugalii. Kraje te, uważane za półperyferyjne pod względem rekrutacji studentów z zagranicy, mają mniejsze tradycje w zakresie mobilności przyjazdowej niż kraje, które są głównymi rekrutującymi i które były przedmiotem wcześniejszych badań dotyczących przyciągania studentów z zagranicy. W artykule przeanalizowano krajowe polityki i strategie, koncentrując się na ich powstawaniu, racjonalnych rozwiązaniach i instrumentach. Badanie ma charakter porównawczy i ma na celu znalezienie podobieństw i różnic w podejściu tych krajów do zmieniającego się globalnego środowiska szkolnictwa wyższego. Głównym wynikiem analiz jest ustalenie, że kraje półperyferyjne wydają się stosować inne strategie i uciekać się do innych przewag komparatywnych niż najwięksi rekrutujący. Wyniki podkreślają potrzebę określenia przez te kraje ich szczególnych zdolności przyciągania i atutów, a także celowego wyboru regionów, w których będą rekrutować studentów.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Dział
Artykuły
Biogramy autorów

Dominik Antonowicz, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu

DOMINIK ANTONOWICZ – kieruje Katedrą Badań nad Szkolnictwem Wyższym i Nauką w Uniwersytecie Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu. Prowadzi badania nad polityka naukową i ustrojami instytucji akademickich.

Catrina Sin, Agência de Avaliação e Acreditação do Ensino Superior, Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES)

CRISTINA SIN – pracuje w Agência de Avaliação e Acreditação do Ensino Superior oraz Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES) w Porto. Jej zainteresowania badawcze koncentrują się głównie na wpływie polityki wobec szkolnictwa wyższego na praktyki edukacyjne, w tym zwłaszcza jakość kształcenia. W ostatnich latach prowadziła badania nad problematyką implementacji Procesu Bolońskiego w portugalskim szkolnictwie wyższym.

Jannecke Wiers-Jenssen, Centre for the Study of Professions Teaching and Research Oslo Metropolitan University

JANNECKE WIERS-JENSSEN – pracuje w Centre for the Study of Professions Teachingand Research Oslo Metropolitan University. Zajmuje się głównie edukacją na poziomie wyższym, oraz jej związkami z rynkiem pracy. W ostatnich kilku latach coraz więcej uwagi poświęca się zjawisku umiędzynarodowienia szkolnictwa wyższego, w tym zwłaszcza obcokrajowcom studiującymw Norwegii.

Bibliografia

  1. Altbach, P.G. (2013). The International imperative in higher education. Global perspectives on higher education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  2. Altbach, P.G. i Teichler, U. (2001). Internationalisation and exchanges in a globalized University. Journal of Studies in International Education 5(1): 5–25.
  3. Antonowicz, D. (2012). External Influences and Local Responses. Changes in Polish Higher Education 1990–2005. W: National higher education reforms in a European context: comparative reflections on Poland and Norway, red. P. Maassen i M. Kwiek, 87–111. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  4. Assunção, M. (2017). Exportação do Ensino Superior. W: PortugalGlobal: A crescente inter-nacionalização do ensino superior português, 7–8 Lisboa: AICEP.
  5. Barnett, G.A., Lee, M., Jiang, K. i Park, H.W. (2016). The flow of international students from a macro perspective: a network analysis. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 46(4): 533–559.
  6. Beine, M., Noël, R. i Ragot, L. (2014). Determinants of the international mobility of students. Economics of Education Review 41: 40–54.
  7. Blumenthal, P., Goodwin, C., Smith, A. i Teichler, U. (1996). Academic mobility in a changing world: Regional and Global Trends. London: Jessica Kingsley.
  8. Börjesson, M. (2017). The global space of international students in 2010. Journal of Ethnic and Migration studies 43(8): 1256–1275.
  9. Choudaha, R. (2017). Are International Students ‘Cash Cows’? International Higher Education, 90: 5–6.
  10. Cantwell, B. (2017). The geopolitics of the educational market. W: Global Rankings and the Geo-politics of Higher Education, red. E. Hazelkorn, 309–324. London: Routledge.
  11. Caruso, R. i de Wit, H. (2015). Determinants of Mobility of Students in Europe: Empirical Evidence for the period 1998–2009. Journal of Studies in International Education 19(3): 265–282.
  12. Cremonini, L., i Antonowicz, D. (2009). In the Eye of the Beholder? Conceptualizing academic attraction in the global higher education market. European Education 41(2): 52–74.
  13. Cox, M. (2013). International student recruitment: policies and developments in selected countries: Sweden, Norway and Finland. The Hague: Nuffic.
  14. DBH. (2017). Foreign students of all registered students. Accessed on 3 October at http://dbh.nsd.uib.no/dbhvev/dokumenter/internasjonalisering/tabeller_tilstandsrapport.html#tabell9.
  15. Drori, G. (2015). Branding universities: Trends and strategies. International Higher Education (71): 3–5.
  16. European University Association. (2013). Internationalisation in European higher education: European policies, institutional strategies and EUA support. Belgium: EUA.
  17. Fonseca, M.L., Esteves, A. i Iorio, J. (2015). Mobilidade internacional de estudantes do ensino superior: os alunos universitários brasileiros em Portugal. W: Vagas atlânticas: migrações entre Brasil e Portugal no início do século XXI, red. J. Peixoto, B. Padilla, J.C. Marques, i P. Góis, 149–175. Lisboa: Editora Mundos Sociais.
  18. França, T., Alves, E. i Padilla, B. (2018). Portuguese policies fostering international student mobility: a colonial legacy or a new strategy?. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 1–14.
  19. Gornitzka, Å. i Langfeldt, L. (2008). The internationalisation of national knowledge policies. W: Borderless Knowledge, red. Å. Gornitzka i L. Langfeldt. Dordrecht: Springer.
  20. GUS. (2016). Higher education institutions and their finances in 2015. Warsaw: GUS.
  21. Knight, J. i de Wit, H. (1995). Strategies for internationalisation of higher education: Historical and conceptual perspectives. W: Strategies for internationalisation of higher education. A comparative study of Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States, red. H. de Wit, 5–32. Amsterdam: European Association for International Education.
  22. Kołodko, G. (2009). A two-thirds of success. Poland’s post-communist transformation 1989–2009. Communist and Post-communist Studies 42(3): 325–351
  23. Kondakci, Y. (2011). Student mobility reviewed: Attraction and satisfaction of international students in Turkey. Higher Education 62(5): 573.
  24. Kwiek, M. (2014). Structural Changes in the Polish Higher Education System (1990–2010): A Synthetic View. European Journal of Higher Education, 4: 266–280.
  25. Kwiek, M. i Dobbins, M. (2017). Europeanisation and globalisation in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe: 25 years of changes revisited (1990–2015). European Education Research Journal, 16(5): 519–528.
  26. Opper, S., Teichler, U. i Carlson, J. (1990). The Impact of Study Abroad Programmeson Students and Graduates. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  27. Llewellyn-Smith, C. i McCabe, V.S. (2008). What is the attraction for exchange students: the host destination or the host university? Empirical evidence from a study of an Australian University. International Journal of Tourism Research 10: 593–607.
  28. MADR/MEC. (2014). Uma estratégia para a internacionalização do ensino superior português [A strategy for the internationalisation of Portuguese Higher Education]. Lisbon: Ministry of Regional Development and Ministry of Education.
  29. Mazzarol, T. i Soutar, G.N. (2002). The “push-pull” Factors Influencing International Student Selec-tion of Education Destination.” International Journal of Educational Management 16(2): 82–90.
  30. Ministry of Education and Research. (2009). White paper no 14 (2008–2009). Internasjonalisering av utdanning [Internationalisation of education]. Oslo: Ministry of Education.
  31. Ministry of Education and Research. (1985). Om høyere utdanning [On higher education] White paper no 19.
  32. Ministry of Education and Research. (2001). Gjør din plikt, krev din rett. Kvalitetsreform av høyere utdanning [Do your duty, demand your rights. Quality reform in higher education]. White paper no 27.
  33. Ministry of Education and Research. (2009). Internasjonalisering av utdanning [Internationalisation of Education] White paper no 14.
  34. Ministry of Education and Research. (2016). Tilstandsrapporten for høyere utdanning 2016. [Status report for higher education 2016]. Oslo: Ministry of Education.
  35. Ministry of Education and research. (2017). Kultur for kvalitet i høyere utdanning [Culture for Quality in higher education]. White paper no 11 2016–2017. Oslo: Ministry of Education and research.
  36. MNiSW [Ministry of Science and Higher Education]. (2009a). Partnerstwo dla Wiedzy. Reforma szkolnictwa wyższego w Polsce. Warsaw: MNiSW.
  37. MNISW. (2009b). Założenia do nowelizacji ustawy – Prawo o szkolnictwie wyższym oraz ustawy o stopniach naukowych i tytule naukowym oraz o stopniach i tytule w zakresie sztuki. Warsaw: MNiSW.
  38. MNISW. (2015). Program umiędzynarodowienia szkolnictwa wyższego. MNiSW, Warszawa.
  39. Mosneaga, A. i Agergaard, J. 2012. Agents of internationalisation? Danish universities’ practices for attracting international students. Globalisation, Societies and Education 10(4): 519–538.
  40. Mourato, J. (2016). Ensino Superior Politécnico & internacionalização. Público, 23 February 2016.
  41. Nicolescu, L. (2009). Applying Marketing to Higher Education: scopes and limits. Management & Marketing 4(2): 35–44.
  42. NIFU. (2018). Doktorgrader [Ph.d. statistics ] https://www.nifu.no/fou-statistiske/fou-statistikk/doktorgrader/.
  43. NOU. (1989). Grenseløs læring [Borderless knowledge] (1989). Green paper 1989: 13.
  44. OECD. (2016). Education at a Glance. OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD.
  45. OECD. 2017. Education at a Glance. OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD.
  46. Pacholski, L. (2005). Jakie uniwersytety? Nauka 1: 147–156.
  47. Perkins, R. i Neumayer, E. (2014). Geographies of educational mobilities: Exploring the uneven flows of international students. The Geographical Journal 180(3): 246–259.
  48. Pinheiro, R. i Antonowicz, D. (2014). Opening the gates or coping with the flow? Governing access to higher education in Northern and Central Europe. Higher Education 70(3): 299–313.
  49. Sarpebakken, B. (2016). Doktorgradsstatistikk. Tabeller og figurer. [Doctoral statistics. Tables and figures] Oslo: Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education. http://www.nifu.no/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Figurer-og-tabeller-1980-2016-NY.pdf.
  50. Salerno, C. (2007). A Service Enterprise: The Market Vision. W: University Dynamics and European Integration, red. P.A. Maassen i J. Olsen, 119–135. Dordrecht: Springer.
  51. SIU. (2013). Internasjonal profil? Strategier for Internasjonalisering ved norske universiteter og høyskoler [International profile? Strategies for internationalisation at Norwegian universities and colleges]. Bergen: Norwegian Centre for International cooperation in Education.
  52. SIU. (2016). Mobilitetsrapport 2016 [Mobility report 2016]. Bergen: Norwegian Centrefor International cooperation in Education.
  53. Sin, C., Veiga, A. i Amaral, A. (2016). European Policy Implementation and Higher Education: Analysing the Bologna Process. London: Palgrave.
  54. Stier, J. (2004). Taking a critical stance toward internationalisation ideologies in highereducation: idealism, instrumentalism and educationalism. Globalisation, Societiesand Education 2(1): 1–28.
  55. Sursock, A. (2015). Trends 2015: Learning and Teaching in European Universities. Brussels: EUA.
  56. Thieme, J. (2009). Szkolnictwo wyższe: wyzwania XXI wieku: Polska, Europa, USA. Difin, Warszawa.
  57. Varghese, N. V. (2008). Globalization of higher education and cross-border student mobility. Paris: Unesco.
  58. Vedung, E. (1998). Policy Instruments: Typologies and Theories. W: Carrots, Sticks and Sermons: Policy Instruments and Their Evaluation, red. M.-L. Bemelmans-Videc, R.C. Rist i E. Vedung, 21–58. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers.
  59. van der Wende, M. (1997). Missing links. The relationship between National Policiesfor Internationalisation and those for Higher Education in general. W: National Policies for the Internationalisation of Higher Education in Europe, red. Kälvemark i van der Wende. Stockholm: National Agency of Higher Education.
  60. van der Wende, M. (2010). Internationalisation of higher education, Internationalisationof higher education. W: International encyclopedia of education, red. P.L. Peterson,E.L. Baker i B. McGaw, 540–545. Oxford: Elsevier.
  61. Wallerstein, I.M. (1974). The modern world-system. New York: Academic Press.
  62. Weick, K.E. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Administrative science quarterly, 1–19.
  63. Wiers-Jenssen, J. i Sandersen, H.T. (2017). The Norwegian Framework for Educational Cooperation with Russia: Educational Policy with a Hint of Foreign Affairs’. W: HigherEducation in the High North: Academic Exchanges between Norway and Russia,red. M. Sundet, P.A. Forstorp i A. Örtenblad. Dordrecht: Springer.
  64. Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2018). Paradoxical Attraction? Why an Increasing Number of International Students Choose Norway. Journal of Studies in International Education, https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315318786449.
  65. de Wit, H., F., Hunter, L., Howard i Egron-Polak, E. (2015). European Parliament studyon internationalisation of higher education. Brussels: European Union.