Main Article Content
The aim of this article is to show what the practical implications are regarding the Commission inquiry into e-commerce sector launched on 6 May 2015. Because of their specific and dynamic nature, the application of competition law to online markets may prove challenging. Therefore, the focus will be also directed to challenges that could be faced when anti-competitive practices in e-commerce sector are strictly enforced. The question is whether traditional competition analysis may be sufficiently able to reflect the way in which competition takes place on digital markets.
- Batchelor B., Allgrove B., Agnew M., Digital disruption: the practical implications of the EU’s Digital Single Market agenda, “European Competition Law Review” 2015, vol. 36, no. 9.
- Bork R.H., The Antitrust Paradox: A Policy at War with Itself, Oxford 1997.
- Buccirossi P., Vertical restraints on e-commerce in the case of selective distribution, “Journal of Competition Law & Economics” 2015, vol. 11, no. 4.
- Bundeskartellamt, Vertical Restraints in the Internet Economy, Meeting of the Working Group on Competition Law, Bonn 2013.
- Carloni F., Megregian S.S., Bruneau M., The E-Commerce Sector Inquiry: Can It Stop National Competition Authorities from Adopting an Overly Restrictive Approach?, “European Competition Law Review” 2015, vol. 6, no. 9.
- Carlton W.D., Chevalier J.A., Free riding and sales strategies for the Internet, “Journal of Industrial Economics” 2001, vol. 49, no. 4.
- Case 159/78, Commission v. Italy , EU: C: 1979: 243.
- Case 262/81, Coditel II , EU: C: 1982: 334.
- Case C-439/09, Pierre Fabre , EU: C: 2011: 649.
- Colomo I., Copyright reform through competition law? The Commission’s statement of objections in the pay TV investigation, Chillin’ Competition, 24.07.2015.
- Commission Decision of 6 May 2015 initiating an inquiry into the e-commerce sector pursuant to Article 17 of Council Regulation (EC) no. 1/2003, C (2015) 3026 final.
- Commission Guidelines on Vertical Restraints, OJ C 130.
- Commission Regulation (EU) No 330/2010 of 20 April 2010 on the application of Article 101(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to categories of vertical agreements and concerted practices, OJ L 102.
- Commission Staff Working Document of 25 June 2014, Guidance on restrictions of competition “by object” for the purpose of defining which agreements may benefit from the De Minimis Notice, SWD (2014) 198 final.
- Commission’s Fact Sheet of 6 May 2015, Antitrust: Commission launches e-commerce sector inquiry, MEMO/15/4922.
- Commissioner Vestager’s speech of 26 March 2015, Competition policy for the Digital Single Market: Focus on e-commerce, SPEECH/15/4704.
- Communication from the Commission of 6 May 2015 to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe, COM (2015) 192 final.
- Conseil de la Concurrence, Décision no. 07-D-07 du 8 mars 2007 relative à despratiques mises en oeuvre dans le secteur de la distribution des produits cosmétiques et d’hygiène corporelle, http://www.autoritedelaconcurrence.fr/pdf/avis/07d07.pdf [access: 2.03.2017].
- Council Regulation (EC) no. 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 on the implementation of the rules on competition laid down in Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty, OJ L 1.
- ECC Net report on the application of Articles 20.2 and 21 of the Services Directive, 2013.
- Funke T.G., Territorial Restraints and Distribution in the European Union, Distribution and Franchising Committee: ABA Section of Antitrust Law, September 2013.
- Gerber D.J., Law and the Abuse of Economic Power in Europe, “Tulane Law Review” 1987, no. 62.
- Gomez E., Martens B., Language, Copyright and Geographic Segmentation in the EU Digital Single Market for Music and Film, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, JRC Technical Reports (2015).
- Hederström J., Peeperkorn L., Vertical Restraints in On-line Sales: Comments on Some Recent Developments, “Journal of European Competition Law & Practice” 2016, vol. 7, no. 1.
- Joined cases C-403/08 and C-429/08, Murphy , EU: C: 2011: 631.
- Keane B., The Application of Competition Law in the Entertainment and Sport Sectors, “Journal of European Competition Law & Practice” 2014, vol. 5, no. 8.
- Kohutek K., Rynki wyszukiwarek internetowych a zarzut nadużycia pozycji dominującej (na tle unijnej sprawy przeciwko Google), “Europejski Przegląd Sądowy” 2014, no. 10.
- Mazziotti G., Is geo-blocking a real cause for concern in Europe?, EUI Working Paper, Italy 2015.
- OECD, Vertical Restraints for On-line Sales 2013, DAF/COMP (2013) 13.
- Press release of 6 May 2015, Antitrust: Commission launches e-commerce sector inquiry, IP/15/4921.
- Press release of 23 July 2015, Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections on crossborder provision of pay-TV services available in UK and Ireland, IP/15/5432.
- Press release of 28 April 2014, Bundeskartellamt takes a critical view of restriction of online distribution by ASICS.
- Timothy M., Pomana A., Heemsoth A.M., European Competition Commissioner announces proposed sector inquiry into cross-border e-commerce, “European Competition Law Review” 2015, vol. 36, no. 9.