Main Article Content
The coronavirus pandemic has forced the world to deal with distance learning. This article discusses distance learning in the kindergartens in Israel from the perspective of kindergarten teachers. The research was carried out after the first wave of the virus, in March 2020, and its problems was: What is the attitude of the kindergarten teachers in Israel to distance learning? The research used a linear (differential semantic) questionnaire that measures the degree to which they agree with statements related to distance learning in the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional aspects. The questionnaire was filled out by 213 kindergarten teachers. The research attempts to conclude about the kindergar- ten teachers’ perception of distance learning.
Bogler R., Satisfaction of Jewish and Arab Teachers in Israel, “Journal of Social Psychology” 2005, p. 19–33.
Brandt R., Powerful Learning, “Education of Thinking” 1998, Winter, 19.
Chickering A., Ehrmann, S., Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever, 1996 [onli- ne],
Ching-Hong L., The Comparison of Learning Effectiveness between Traditional Face-To-Face Le- arning and E-Learning among Goal-Oriented Users, 6th International Conference on Digital Content, Multimedia Technology and its Applications, Seoul 2010, p. 255–260.
Cohen A., Mediated Teaching and Distance Learning through the Internet, “Computers in Educa- tion” 1999, 49, p. 8–16.
Cooper A.R., Goodman A., Page A.S., Sherar L.B., Esliger D.W., Sluijs E.M. van, Froberg K., and others, Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Youth: The International Children’s Accelerometry Database (ICAD), “International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity” 2005, 12 (1), p. 113.
Feuerstein R., Klein P., Tannenbaum A. (eds.), Mediated Learning Experience: Theoretical, Psycho- social and Learning Implications, Freund Publishing House, 1991, p. 3–51.
Fogel A., Developing through Relationships: Origins of Communication, Self, and Culture, Univer- sity of Chicago Press, Chicago 1993.
Goldstein A., Simka M., YachadNet – A Forum for Online Dialogue among Teachers of Teacher, Nearly 2000, Mofet Institute & Department for Training Teaching Workers, Ministry of Educa- tion, Culture, and Sport, Tel Aviv 1999.
Heise D., The Semantic Differential and Attitude Research, [in:] Attitude Measurement, ed. G.F. Summers, Rand McNally, Chicago 1970, p. 235–252.
Hollis J.L., Williams A.J., Sutherland R., Campbell E., Nathan N., Wolfenden L., & Wiggers J., and others, A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Levels in Elementary School Physical Education Lessons, “Preventive Medicine” 2016, 86, p. 34–54.
Jaskulska S., Jankowiak B., Rybińska A., Obraz kształcenia na odległość w Polsce w czasie pan- demii COVID-19 w opiniach nauczycielek i nauczycieli wychowania przedszkolnego, raport [online],
Janssen I., LeBlanc A.G., Systematic Review of the Health Benefits of Physical Activity and Fitness in School-Aged Children and Youth, “International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physi- cal Activity” 2010, 7, p. 40–56.
Keren S., Kurtz G., Face-to-Face versus Online Synchronous Teaching:Attitudes of Practiced Teachers, Holon Technological Institute, 2020 [online],
Leung L., Stressful Life Events, Motives for Internet Use, and Social Support among Digital Kids, “Cyberpsychology & Behavior” 2007, 10 (2).
Michlol Jewish Encyclopedia, Distance Learning, 2018 [online],
Ministry of Education, Administration of Computerization, Technology, and Information Sys- tems, Division of Assimilation of Technologies, Emergency in Real Time: Procedures and Instructions for Behavior and Distance Learning in an Emergency, January 2020 [online],
Ministry of Education, Curriculum in Physical Education for the Kindergarten in State and State Religious Education, Department for Planning and Development of Curricula of the Ministry of Education, 2007 [online],
Ministry of Education, Director General’s Circular, Emergency Procedure in the Education System, 2019 [online],
Ministry of Education, Letter to Principals, March 14, 2020 [online],
Ministry of Education, Outline for Distance Learning in the Kindergartens, April 16, 2020 [on- line],
Ministry of Education, The Educational Cloud: All the Online Computerized Services for the School, July 19, 2020 [online],
Ministry of Education, The Pedagogical Administration, Senior Department, Psychological Co- unseling Service, Department of Learning Disabilities and Attention Disorders, When Learning Disability and Attention Disorder Meet Online Distance Learning, May 2020 [online],
Moore M.G., Theory of Transactional Distance, [in:] Theoretical Principles of Distance Education, ed. D. Keegan, Routledge, London–New York 1993, p. 22–38.
Nir-Gal E., Klein P., The Use of the Computer in Early Childhood with or without Adult Mediation – The Teacher’s Role in the Computerized Environment, “Pages” 1999, 29, p. 10–76.
Noesgaard S., Ørngreen R., The Effectiveness of E-Learning: An Explorative and Integrative Review of the Definitions, Methodologies and Factors That Promote e-Learning Effectiveness, “Elec- tronic Journal of e-Learning” 2015, 13 (4), p. 278–290.
Oplatka Y., Foundations of the Administration of Education, Pardes, Haifa 2015.
Osgood C.E., Tannenbaum P.H., The Principle of Congruity in the Prediction of Attitude Change, “Psychological Review” 1955, 62 (1), p. 42–55 [online],
Rosenthal M., Gat L., Zur H., The Social and Emotional Life of Little Children, Chapter 8, “HaKibbutz Hameuchad” 2007, p. 177–185.
Salant E., Factors of Motivation of Students and Teachers in the Distance Learning System, Studies
in Technology and Sciences, “Journal of Technological-Scientific Education” 2001, p. 7–11. Salant E., Knowledge and Digital Curiosity Website, April 6, 2020.
Schleicher A., How Can Teachers and School Systems Respond to the COVID-19 Pandemic? Some
Lessons from TALIS, OECD Education and Skills Today, March 23rd, 2020, OECD Directorate for Education and Skills, [online],
Shany N., Nachmias R., Virtual Course – For Whom?, “Studies in Technology and Sciences” 2001, 34, p. 26–29.
Shatz-Oppenheimer A., Meskit D., Zilberstrom S., To be a Teacher, Mofet Institute & Ministry of Education, Tel Aviv 2011, p. 161–180.
Sherry L., Issues in Distance Learning, “International Journal of Distance Education” 1995, 1, p. 337–365.
Shidlinger Z., Hello Teacher: The Computer and the Future of the Education System, “PC Media” 1999, April, p. 60–61.
Supreme Follow-Up Committee Report, National Committee for Arab Municipalities, The Coping of Arab Society with the Coronavirus Crisis, Arab Education, 20-25, 2020.
Thalheimer W., Does eLearning Work? What The Scientific Research Says!, Work-Learning Research Inc. Somerville, Massachusetts, USA 2017 [online],
The Central Bureau of Statistics, Ownership of Entertainment and Communication Products ac- cording to Population Group and Peripheral Level of the Residential Community, Society in Israel, 2017, 11, 2, 124 [online],
UNESCO, COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response, March 29, 2020 [online],
UNESCO, Half of World’s Student Population Not Attending School: UNESCO Launches Global Coalition to Accelerate Deployment of Remote Learning Solutions, March 19, 2020 [online],
Vygotsky L., Learning in the Social Context: Development of Higher Psychological Processes (ed. M. Tsellermeir, & A. Kozulin), Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Tel Aviv 2004.
Weissblatt A., Distance Learning in a Time of Emergency following the Closure of Education Insti- tutions with the Spread of the Coronavirus: A Comparative Look, Center of Information and Research of the Israel Knesset, 2020.
World Bank, Remote Learning and COVID-19 – The Use of Educational Technologies at Sca- le across an Education System as a Result of Massive School Closings in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic to Enable Distance Education and Online Learning, March 16, 2020 [online],