Civil liability for artificial intelligence products versus the sustainable development of CEECs: which institutions matter?

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Małgorzata Godlewska
Sylwia Morawska
Przemysław Banasik


The aim of this paper is to conduct a meta-analysis of the EU and CEECs civil liability institutions in order to find out if they are ready for the Artificial Intelligence (AI) race. Particular focus is placed on ascertaining whether civil liability institutions such as the Product Liability Directive (EU) or civil codes (CEECs) will protect consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as ensure undistorted competition. In line with the aforementioned, the authors investigate whether the civil liability institutions of the EU and CEECs are based on regulations that can be adapted to the new generation of robots that will be equipped with learning abilities and have a certain degree of unpredictability in their behaviour. The conclusion presented in the paper was drawn on the basis of a review of the current literature and research on national and European regulations. The primary contribution that this article makes is to advance the current of the research concerning the concepts of AI liability for damage and personal injury. A second contribution is to show that the current civil liability institutions of the EU as well as the CEECs are not sufficiently prepared to address the legal issues that will  start to arise when self-driving vehicles or autonomous drones begin operating in fully autonomous modes and possibly cause property damage or personal injury.


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Godlewska, M., Morawska, S., & Banasik, P. (2020). Civil liability for artificial intelligence products versus the sustainable development of CEECs: which institutions matter?. Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny I Socjologiczny, 82(2), 179-192.
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