This article reports the first meta-analysis of the L2 motivational self system (Dörnyei, 2005, 2009). A total of 32 research reports, involving 39 unique samples and 32,078 language learners, were meta-analyzed. The results showed that the three components of the L2 motivational self system (the ideal L2 self, the ought-to L2 self, and the L2 learning experience) were significant predictors of subjective intended effort (rs = .61, .38, and .41, respectively), though weaker predictors of objective measures of achievement (rs = .20, -.05, and .17). Substantial heterogeneity was also observed in most of these correlations. The results also suggest that the strong correlation between the L2 learning experience and intended effort reported in the literature is, due to substantial wording overlap, partly an artifact of lack of discriminant validity between these two scales. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2015). Human agency: Does the beach ball have free will? In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 55-72). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2016a). Unconscious motivation. Part I: Implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 423-454. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.3.4
Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2016b). Unconscious motivation. Part II: Implicit attitudes and L2 achievement. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(4), 619-649. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.4.4
Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2017a). Implicit attitudes in language learning. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham, UK.
Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2017b). Sixty years of language motivation research: Looking back and looking forward. SAGE Open, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017701976
Al-Hoorie, A. H. (in press). Motivation and the unconscious. In M. Lamb, K. Csizér, A. Henry, & S. Ryan (Eds.), The Palgrave Macmillan handbook of motivation for language learning. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Al-Hoorie, A. H., & Vitta, J. P. (in press). The seven sins of L2 research: A review of 30 journals’ statistical quality and their CiteScore, SJR, SNIP, JCR Impact Factors. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818767191
Ambady, N., & Rosenthal, R. (1993). Half a minute: Predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(3), 431-441. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1241
Arbuckle, J., & Williams, B. D. (2003). Students’ perceptions of expressiveness: Age and gender effects on teacher evaluations. Sex Roles, 49(9), 507-516. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025832707002
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Beleche, T., Fairris, D., & Marks, M. (2012). Do course evaluations truly reflect student learning? Evidence from an objectively graded post-test. Economics of Education Review, 31(5), 709-719. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.05.001
Boo, Z., Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). L2 motivation research 2005-2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System, 55, 145-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.10.006
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P., & Rothstein, H. R. (2014). Comprehensive Meta Analysis (Version 3.3). Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
Boring, A. (2015). Gender biases in student evaluations of teachers. Document de travail OFCE. Paris, France. Retrieved from https://www.ofce.fr/pdf/dtravail/WP2015-13.pdf
Braga, M., Paccagnella, M., & Pellizzari, M. (2014). Evaluating students’ evaluations of professors. Economics of Education Review, 41, 71-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2014.04.002
Carrell, S. E., & West, J. E. (2010). Does professor quality matter? Evidence from random assignment of students to professors. Journal of Political Economy, 118(3), 409-432. https://doi.org/10.1086/653808
Csizér, K., & Magid, M. (Eds.). (2014). The impact of self-concept on language learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9-42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Dörnyei, Z. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Dörnyei, Z. (2014). Motivation in second language learning. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 518-531). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Dörnyei, Z., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2017). The motivational foundation of learning languages other than Global English. Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 455-468. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12408
Dörnyei, Z., & Chan, L. (2013). Motivation and vision: An analysis of future L2 self images, sensory styles, and imagery capacity across two target languages. Language Learning, 63(3), 437-462. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12005
Dörnyei, Z., & Kubanyiova, M. (2014). Motivating learners, motivating teachers: Building vision in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. New York: Routledge.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2009a). Motivation, language identities and the L2 self: Future research directions. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 350-356). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009b). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, U. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson.
Duff, P. A. (2017). Commentary: Motivation for learning languages other than English in an English-dominant world. Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 597-607. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12416
Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000a). A nonparametric “trim and fill” method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95(449), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2000.10473905
Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000b). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot–based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56(2), 455-463. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2000.00455.x
Ellis, N. C. (2006). Meta-analysis, human cognition, and language learning. In J. M. Norris & L. Ortega (Eds.), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching (pp. 301-322). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press.
Gardner, R. C. (1979). Social psychological aspects of second language acquisition. In H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 193-220). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London, UK: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. (2010). Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model. New York: Peter Lang.
Ghanizadeh, A., Eishabadi, N., & Rostami, S. (2016). Motivational dimension of willingness to communicate in L2: The impacts of criterion measure, ideal L2 self, family influence, and attitudes to L2 culture. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 5(3), 13-24. https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrse.2015.1261
Ghanizadeh, A., & Rostami, S. (2015). A Dörnyei-inspired study on second language motivation: A cross-comparison analysis in public and private contexts. Psychological Studies, 60(3), 292-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-015-0328-4
Green, S. B., Lissitz, R. W., & Mulaik, S. A. (1977). Limitations of coefficient alpha as an index of test unidimensionality. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37(4), 827-838. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447703700403
Hadfield, J., & Dörnyei, Z. (2013). Motivating learning. New York: Routledge.
Henry, A., & Cliffordson, C. (2015). The impact of out-of-school factors on motivation to learn English: Self-discrepancies, beliefs, and experiences of self-authenticity. Applied Linguistics, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amv060
Hessel, G. (2015). From vision to action: Inquiring into the conditions for the motivational capacity of ideal second language selves. System, 52, 103-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.05.008
Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319-340. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.3.319
Higgins, E. T. (1998). Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as a motivational principle. In P. Z. Mark (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 30, pp. 1-46). New York: Academic Press.
Higgins, E. T., Shah, J., & Friedman, R. (1997). Emotional responses to goal attainment: Strength of regulatory focus as moderator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(3), 515-525. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1995
Hoge, D. R., & McCarthy, J. D. (1983). Issues of validity and reliability in the use of real–ideal discrepancy scores to measure self-regard. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(5), 1048-1055. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528
Islam, M., Lamb, M., & Chambers, G. (2013). The L2 motivational self system and national interest: A Pakistani perspective. System, 41(2), 231-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.01.025
Kim, Y.-K., & Kim, T.-Y. (2011). The effect of Korean secondary school students’ perceptual learning styles and ideal L2 self on motivated L2 behavior and English proficiency. Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics, 11(1), 21-42.
Kormos, J., & Csizér, K. (2008). Age‐related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves, and motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 58(2), 327-355. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00443.x
Kraus, S. J. (1995). Attitudes and the prediction of behavior: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(1), 58-75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167295211007
Lamb, M. (2012). A self system perspective on young adolescents’ motivation to learn English in urban and rural settings. Language Learning, 62(4), 997-1023. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00719.x
Lanvers, U. (2016). Lots of selves, some rebellious: Developing the self discrepancy model for language learners. System, 60, 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.05.012
Li, S. (2016). The construct validity of language aptitude: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(4), 801-842. https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226311500042X
MacIntyre, P. D., & Mackinnon, S. P. (April, 2007). From integrative motivation to possible selves: The baby, the bathwater, and the future of language learning motivation research. Paper presented at the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Costa Mesa, California, USA.
MacIntyre, P. D., Mackinnon, S. P., & Clément, R. (2009). The baby, the bathwater, and the future of language learning motivation research. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 43-65). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Serroul, A. (2015). Motivation on a per-second timescale: Examining approach-avoidance motivation during L2 task performance. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 109-138). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Mackay, J. (2014). Applications and implications of the L2 motivational self system in a Catalan EFL context. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 377-400). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
MacNell, L., Driscoll, A., & Hunt, A. N. (2015). What’s in a name: Exposing gender bias in student ratings of teaching. Innovative Higher Education, 40(4), 291-303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-014-9313-4
Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41(9), 954-969. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.9.954
Moskovsky, C., Assulaimani, T., Racheva, S., & Harkins, J. (2016). The L2 motivational self system and L2 achievement: A study of Saudi EFL learners. The Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 641-654. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12340
Naftulin, D. H., Ware, J. E., Jr., & Donnelly, F. A. (1973). The Doctor Fox Lecture: A paradigm of educational seduction. Academic Medicine, 48(7), 630-635.
Nikolov, M. (1999). “Why do you learn English?” “Because the teacher is short.” A study of Hungarian children’s foreign language learning motivation. Language Teaching Research, 3(1), 33-56. https://doi.org/10.1177/136216889900300103
Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L. (2006). The value and practice of research synthesis for language learning and teaching. In J. M. Norris & L. Ortega (Eds.), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching (pp. 3-50). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Ottoboni, K., Boring, A., & Stark, P. (2016). Student evaluations of teaching (mostly) do not measure teaching effectiveness. ScienceOpen Research. https://doi.org/10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-EDU.AETBZC.v1
Papi, M., & Abdollahzadeh, E. (2012). Teacher motivational practice, student motivation, and possible L2 selves: An examination in the Iranian EFL context. Language Learning, 62(2), 571-594. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00632.x
Papi, M., Bondarenko, A., Mansouri, S., Feng, L., & Jiang, C. (in press). Rethinking L2 motivation research: The 2×2 model of L2 self-guides. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.
Plonsky, L. (2013). Study quality in SLA: An assessment of designs, analyses, and reporting practices in quantitative L2 research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35(4), 655-687. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263113000399
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878-912. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12079
Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638-641. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.638
Roth, B., Becker, N., Romeyke, S., Schäfer, S., Domnick, F., & Spinath, F. M. (2015). Intelligence and school grades: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 53, 118-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2015.09.002
Shah, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Regulatory concerns and appraisal efficiency: The general impact of promotion and prevention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(5), 693-705. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063
Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0
Simonsohn, U., Nelson, L. D., & Simmons, J. P. (2014). p-curve and effect size: Correcting for publication bias using only significant results. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(6), 666-681. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614553988
Stark, P., & Freishtat, R. (2014). An evaluation of course evaluations. ScienceOpen Research. https://doi.org/10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-EDU.AOFRQA.v1
Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M. (2009). The L2 motivational self system among Japanese, Chinese and Iranian learners of English: A comparative study. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 66-97). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Taylor, F. (2013). Self and identity in adolescent foreign language learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Teimouri, Y. (2017). L2 selves, emotions, and motivated behaviors. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39(4), 681-709. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263116000243
Thompson, A. S., & Vásquez, C. (2015). Exploring motivational profiles through language learning narratives. Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 158-174. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12187
Thorsen, C., Henry, A., & Cliffordson, C. (2017). The case of a missing person? The current L2 self and the L2 motivational self system. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Advance online publication.
Ushioda, E. (2011). Language learning motivation, self and identity: Current theoretical perspectives. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3), 199-210. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.538701
Wang, F. (2008). Motivation and English achievement: An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of a new measurement for Chinese students of English learning. North American Journal of Psychology, 10(3), 633-646.
Wolters, C. A., & Taylor, D. J. (2012). A self-regulated learning perspective on student engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 635-651). Boston, MA: Springer.
You, C., Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K. (2016). Motivation, vision, and gender: A survey of learners of English in China. Language Learning, 66(1), 94-123. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12140
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.