How do differences in exposure affect English language learning? A comparison of teenagers in two learning environments
pdf

Keywords

out-of-school input
in-school input
linguistic distance
adolescents
subtitles

How to Cite

Muñoz, C., & Cadierno, T. (2021). How do differences in exposure affect English language learning? A comparison of teenagers in two learning environments. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 185–212. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.2.2

Number of views: 2689


Number of downloads: 1350

Abstract

This study investigates whether potential differences in the weight of out-of-school and in-school learning environments affect the acquisition of L2 English by teenagers in two geographical contexts, more and less English-rich, and with less and more linguistic distance to English, respectively. Participants were two groups of 14-15-year-olds, from Denmark and Spain. Language measures included a listening comprehension test, a metalinguistic knowledge test, and a grammaticality judgment test. Data about out-of-classroom exposure was elicited via a questionnaire. The study showed that (a) the Danish group attained a significantly higher level in all language tests except for the metalinguistic knowledge test; (b) the Danish group engaged longer in out-of-school activities although the preference for some activities over others was similar in the two groups; and (c) the types of associations between out-of-school activities and language measures were different between the two groups. These results suggest that the potential influence of out-of-school activities on different language aspects is related to the particular context in which the L2 is learned and to the language proficiency of the learner.

https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.2.2
pdf

Funding

Grant PID2019-110594 from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation

Grant SGR 560 from the Catalan Agency for Management of University and Research Grants

the students, parents and teachers of the schools

Anastasia Pattemore

Elsa Tragant

Mikkel Hansen

References

Azzolini, D., Campregher, S., & Madia, J. E. (2020). Formal instruction vs informal exposure: What matters more for teenagers’ acquisition of English as a second language? Research Papers in Education, 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2020.1789718

Bybee, J. (1995). Regular morphology and the lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes,10, 425-455.

Cadierno, T., & Eskildsen, S. W. (Eds.). (2015). Usage-based perspectives on second language learning. Mouton de Gruyter.

Cadierno, T., Hansen, M., Lauridsen, J. T., Eskildsen, S. W., Fenyvesi, K., Hannibal Jensen, S., & aus der Wieschen, M. V. (2020). Does younger mean better? Age of onset, learning rate and short-term L2 proficiency in young Danish learners of English. VIAL, 17, 57-86.

de Bot, K. (2014). The effectiveness of early foreign language learning in the Netherlands. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 409-418. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.3.2

DeKeyser, R. M. (2012). Age effects in second language learning. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 442-460). Routledge.

De Wilde, V., & Eyckmans, J. (2017). Game on! Young learners’ incidental language learning of English prior to instruction. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 7(4), 673-694. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.1017.7.4.6

De Wilde, V., Brysbaert, M., & Eyckmans, J. (2020a). Learning English through out-of school exposure: How do word-related variables and proficiency influence receptive vocabulary learning? Language Learning, 70(2), 349-381.

De Wilde, V., Brysbaert, M., & Eyckmans, J. (2020b). Learning English through out-of school exposure. Which levels of language proficiency are attained and which types of input are important? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 23(1), 171-185.

De Wilde, V., Brysbaert, M., & Eyckmans., J. (2021). Young learners’ L2 English after the onset of instruction: Longitudinal development of L2 proficiency and the role of individual differences. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 24(3), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728920000747

Doughty, C. (2003). Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation, and enhancement. In M. Long & C. Doughty (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 257-310). Blackwell.

Dyen, I., Kruskal, J. B., & Black, P. (1992). An Indoeuropean classification: A lexicostatistical experiment. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 82(5), iii-132.

Ellis, N. C. (2002). Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 143-188. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263102002024

Ellis, N. C. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 305-352.

Ellis, N. C., & Cadierno, T. (2009). Constructing a second language: Introduction to the special section. Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 7, 111-139.

Ellis, R. (2009). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language. In R. Ellis, S. Loewen, C. Elder, R. Erlam, J. Philp, & H. Reinders (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 31-64). Multilingual Matters.

Ellis, R., Loewen, S., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Philip, J., & Reinders, H. (Eds.). (2009). Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. Multilingual Matters.

European Commission. (2012). First European survey on language competences: Education and training. Publications Office of the European Union.

Gass, S., Winke, P., Isbell, D., & Ahn, J. (2019). How captions help people learn languages: A working-memory, eye-tracking study. Language Learning & Technology, 23(2), 84-104.

Greenberg, J. H. (2001). The methods and purposes of linguistic genetic classification. Language and Linguistics, 2, 111-135.

Grønnum, N. (2001). Fonetik og fonologi: Almen og dansk. Akademisk Forlag.

Gutiérrez, X. (2012). Implicit knowledge, explicit knowledge, and achievement in second language (L2) Spanish. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15(1), 20-41

Hannibal Jensen, S. (2017). Gaming as an English language learning resource among young children in Denmark. CALICO Journal, 34(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.29519

Huang, B. H., Shawn Chang, Y-H., Zhi, M., & Niu, L. (2020). The effect of input on bilingual adolescents’ long-term language outcomes in a foreign language instruction context. International Journal of Bilingualism, 24(1), 8-25.

Johannsdóttir, Á. (2018). English exposure and vocabulary proficiency at the onset of English instruction. In B. Arnbjörnsdóttir & H. Ingvarsdóttir (Eds.), Language development across the life-span: The impact of English on education and work in Iceland (pp. 57-78). Springer International Publishing.

Kuppens, A. H. (2010). Incidental foreign language acquisition from media exposure. Learning, Media and Technology, 35(1), 65-85.

Langacker, R. W. (1987). Foundations of cognitive grammar, vol. 1: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford University Press.

Lee, M., & Révész, A. (2020). Promoting grammatical development through captions and textual enhancement in multimodal input-based tasks. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(3), 577-598. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263120000108

Lindgren, E., & Muñoz, C. (2013). The influence of exposure, parents, and linguistic distance on young European learners’ foreign language comprehension. International Journal of Multilingualism, 10(1), 105-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2012.679275

Long, M. H. (2020). Optimal input for language learning: Genuine, simplified, elaborated, or modified elaborated? Language Teaching, 53(2), 169-182.

Maie, R., & DeKeyser. R. (2020). Conflicting evidence of explicit and implicit knowledge from objective and subjective measures. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(2), 359-382. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263119000615

Mayer, R. (Ed.). (2014). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press.

Muñoz, C. (2006). The effects of age on foreign language learning: The BAF project. In C. Muñoz (Ed.), Age and the rate of foreign language learning (pp. 1-40). Multilingual Matters.

Muñoz, C. (2011). Is input more significant than starting age in foreign language acquisition? International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL), 49, 113-133.

Muñoz, C. (2014). Contrasting effects of starting age and input on the oral performance of foreign language learners. Applied Linguistics, 35(4), 463-482.

Muñoz, C. (2020). Boys like games and girls like movies: Age and gender differences in out-of-school contact with English. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, 33(1), 171-201. https://doi.org/10.1075/resla.18042.mun

Muñoz, C., Cadierno, T., & Casas, I. (2018). Different starting points for early English language learning: A comparative study of Danish and Spanish young learners. Language Learning, 68(4), 1076-1109.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford University Press.

Pattemore, A., & Muñoz, C. (2020). Learning L2 constructions from captioned audio-visual exposure: The effect of learner-related factors. System, 93, 1-13.

Peters, E. (2018). The effect of out-of-school exposure to English language media on learners’ vocabulary knowledge. ITL – International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 169(1), 142-167.

Peters, E., Noreillie, A., Heylen, K., Bulté, B., & Desmet. P. (2019). The impact of instruction and out-of-school exposure to foreign language input on learners’ vocabulary knowledge in two languages. Language Learning, 69, 943-977.

Peters, E., & Webb, S. (2018). Incidental vocabulary acquisition through viewing L2 television and factors that affect learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(3), 551-77. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0272263117000407

Puimège, E., & Peters, E. (2019). Learners’ English vocabulary knowledge prior to formal instruction: The role of learner-related and word-related variables. Language Learning, 69(4), 943-977. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12364

Pujadas, G., & Muñoz, C. (2019). Extensive viewing of captioned and subtitled TV series: A study of L2 vocabulary learning by adolescents. The Language Learning Journal, 47(4), 479-496.

Rodgers, M. P. H., & Heidt, J. (2021). Levelling up comprehensible input and vocabulary learning: The lexical profile of videogames. In W. Valentin & R. Tegge (Eds.), Pop culture in language education (pp. 215-227). Routledge.

Saito, K., & Hanzawa, K. (2018). The role of input in second language oral ability development in foreign language classrooms: A longitudinal study. Language Teaching Research, 22, 398-417. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816679030

Sockett, G., & Toffoli, D. (2012). Beyond learner autonomy: A dynamic systems view of the informal learning of English in virtual online communities. ReCALL, 24, 138-151. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344012000031

Sun, H., Steinkrauss, R., Tendeiro, J., & de Bot, K. (2016). Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China: Internal and external factors. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 550-566. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1178706

Sundqvist, P., & Sylvén, L. K. (2014). Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden. ReCALL, 26, 3-20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344013000232

Sundqvist, P., & Sylvén, L. K. (2016). Extramural English in teaching and learning: From theory and research to practice. Palgrave Macmillan.

Sundqvist, P., & Wikström, P. (2015). Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes. System, 51, 65-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.04.001

Sydorenko, T. (2010). Modality of input and vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning & Technology, 14 (2), 50-73.

Sylvén, L. K., & Sundqvist, P. (2012). Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners. ReCALL, 24(3), 302-321. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095834401200016X

Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Harvard University Press.

Unsworth, S., Persson, L., Prins, T., & de Bot, K. (2015). An investigation of factors affecting early foreign language learning in the Netherlands. Applied Linguistics, 36, 527-548. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt052

Verspoor, M. H., de Bot, K., & van Rein, E. (2011). English as a foreign language: The role of out-of-school language input. In A. De Houwer & A. Wilton (Eds.), English in Europe today: Sociocultural and educational perspectives (pp. 148-166). John Benjamins.

Webb, S., & Rodgers, M. P. H. (2009). The vocabulary demands of television programs. Language Learning, 59(2), 335-66.

Wisnieska, N., & Mora, J. C. (2020). Can captioned video benefit second language pronunciation? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(3), 599-624. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263120000029