The underlying factors of foreign language reading anxiety: Their effects on strategy use and orientation toward reading
pdf

Keywords

reading anxiety
reading strategy use
orientation to reading
reading confidence

How to Cite

Kim, H. I. (2021). The underlying factors of foreign language reading anxiety: Their effects on strategy use and orientation toward reading. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 313–234. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.2.3

Number of views: 1240


Number of downloads: 1081

Abstract

Both positive and negative emotions have been the focus of a wealth of language learning research in recent years. This can mostly be attributed to the established links between an individual’s psychological responses, existing and emerging from learning, the learning processes they engage in, and the outcomes they achieve. A look at advanced research on language anxiety, a negative emotion that appears to be strongly involved in learning, has shown that specific information about reading anxiety is comparatively insufficient. This study, therefore, examines the underlying factors of reading anxiety in Korean university students, using the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale. Subsequently, it explores how these anxiety factors are related to strategy use (i.e., metacognitive, cognitive, and support strategies) and orientation toward reading, which demonstrates a reader’s active involvement while reading. Three sub-factors of reading anxiety were found: anxiety experienced during the process of reading English, confidence in reading, and anxiety when reading English characters. Interestingly, confidence or positive emotion was found to be a far more powerful positive contributor to Korean EFL university readers’ use of metacognitive strategies and the degree of orientation to reading than was anxiety experienced while reading. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.2.3
pdf

Funding

The Editor in Chief and three anonymous reviewers

References

Abu-Rabia, S. (1996). The influence of culture and attitudes on reading comprehension in SL: The case of Jews learning English and Arabs learning Hebrew. Reading Psychology: An International Quarterly, 17(3), 253-271.

Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope’s construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of student of Japanese. Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 155-168.

Auerbach, E. R., & Paxton D. (1997). “It’s not the English thing:” Bringing reading research into the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 237-261.

Chastain, K. (1975). Affective and ability factors in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 25, 153-161.

Dewaele, J., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2014). The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4, 237-274.

Dewaele, J., Witney, J., Saito, K., & Dewaele, L. (2018). Foreign language enjoyment and anxiety: The effect of teacher and learner variables. Language Teaching Research, 22(6), 676-697.

Ellis, N. C. (2008). Usage-based and form-focused language acquisition: The associative learning of constructions, learned-attention, and the limited L2 endstate. In P. Robinson & N. C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition (pp. 372-405). Routledge.

ETS. (2015). Mapping the TOEIC Tests on the CEFR. https://www.ets.org/s/toeic/pdf/toeic-cef-mapping-flyer.pdf

Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1-53.

Guilloteaux, M. J., & Dörnyei, Z. (2008). Motivating language learners: A classroom-oriented investigation of the effects of motivational strategies on student motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42(1), 55-77.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.

Huang, S., Eslami, Z., & Hu, R. S. (2010). The relationship between teacher and peer support and English-language learners’ anxiety. English Language Teaching, 3(1), 32-40.

Hudson, T. (2007). Teaching second language reading. Oxford University Press.

Jalongo, M. R., & Hirsh, R. A. (2010). Understanding reading anxiety: New insights from neuroscience. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(6), 431-435.

Kaderavek, J. N., Guo, Y., & Justice, L. M. (2014). Validity of the children’s orientation to book reading rating scale. Journal of Research in Reading, 37(2), 159-178.

Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141-151.

Korean Ministry of Education. (2019, July 5). Promoting the improvement of English education in elementary school. https://www.moe.go.kr/boardCnts/view.do?boardID=294&lev=0&statusYN=W&s=moe&m=0204&opType=N&boardSeq=77935

Lien, H. (2011). EFL learners’ reading strategy use in relation to reading anxiety. Language Education in Asia, 2(2), 199-212.

Lien, H. (2016). Effects of EFL individual learner variables on foreign language reading anxiety and metacognitive reading strategy use. Psychological Reports, 119(1), 124-135.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Mercer, S. (2014). Introducing positive psychology to SLA. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 153-172.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Gregersen, T. (2012). Emotions that facilitate language learning: The positive broadening power of the imagination. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 2(2), 193-213.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Vincze, L. (2017). Positive and negative emotions underlie motivation for L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 7(1), 61-88.

Malcolm, D. (2009). Reading strategy awareness of Arabic-speaking medical students studying in English. System, 37(4), 640-651.

McGeown, S. P., Rhona, S. J., Walker, J., Howatson, K., Stockburn, A., & Dufton, P. (2015). The relationship between young children’s enjoyment of learning to read, reading attitudes, confidence and attainment. Educational Research, 57(4), 389-402.

Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2006). A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: Self-efficacy, anxiety and their relation to reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 39(2), 276-295.

Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Development Education, 25(3), 2-10.

Peterson, R. A. (2000). A meta-analysis of variance accounted for and factor loadings in exploratory factor analysis. Marketing Letters, 11(3), 261-275.

Phakiti, A. (2008). Construct validation of Bachman and Paler’s (1996) strategic competence model over time in EFL reading tests. Language Testing, 25(5), 237-272.

Pritchard, R. (1990). The effects of cultural schemata on reading processing strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 25(4), 273-295.

Saito, Y., Thomas J. G., & Horwitz, E. K. (1999). Foreign language reading anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 83(2), 202-218.

Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28(1), 129-142.

Sellers, V. D. (2000). Anxiety and reading comprehension in Spanish as a foreign language. Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 512-521.

Shi, Y., & Liu, Z. (2006). Foreign language reading anxiety and its relationship to English achievement and gender. Journal of PLA University of Foreign Languages, 29, 59-65.

Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (2001). Differences in the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System, 29(4), 431-449.

Shin, H., & Park, J. S. (2016). Researching language and neoliberalism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(5), 443-452.

Thompson, A. S., & Lee J. (2012). Anxiety and EFL: Does multilingualism matter? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(6), 730-749.

Thompson, A. S., & Lee, J. (2014). The impact of experience abroad and language proficiency on language learning anxiety. TESOL Quarterly, 48(2), 252-274.

Tomlin, R. S., & Villa, V. (1994). Attention in cognitive science and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16(2), 183-203.

Tsai, Y., & Lee, C. (2018). An exploration into factors associated with reading anxiety among Taiwanese EFL learners. TEFLIN Journal, 29(1), 129-148.

Zhang, L. (2002). Anxiety of overseas students in Chinese reading. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4, 77-83.

Zhang, L. J. (2010). A dynamic metacognitive systems account of Chinese university students’ knowledge about EFL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 320-353.

Zhang, L. & Zhang, L. J. (2013). Relationships between Chinese college test takers’ strategy use and EFL reading test performance: A structural equation modeling approach. RELC Journal, 44(1), 35-57.

Zhao, A., Guo, Y., & Dynia. J. (2013). Foreign language reading anxiety: Chinese as a foreign language in the United States. Modern Language Journal, 97(3), 764-778.

Walker, M. & Panayides, P. (2014). Rasch measurement in language research: Creating the foreign language classroom anxiety inventory. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 10(4), 613-636.

Wang, J., Spencer, K., & Xing, M. (2009). Metacognitive beliefs and strategies in learning Chinese as a foreign language. System, 37(1), 46-56.