Potential sources of foreign language learning boredom: A Q methodology study
pdf

Keywords

foreign language learning boredom (FLLB)
Q methodology
teacher-induced boredom
student-induced boredom
activity-induced boredom

How to Cite

Kruk, M., Pawlak, M., Elahi Shirvan, M., Taherian, T., & Yazdanmehr, E. (2022). Potential sources of foreign language learning boredom: A Q methodology study. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 12(1), 37–58. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.1.3

Number of views: 2828


Number of downloads: 1417

Abstract

The present study employed an interpretive approach to investigate individual learners’ viewpoints on foreign language learning boredom (FLLB). To this aim, a Q method, which shares features of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches, was used to explore 37 Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ perceptions of potential sources of boredom in the classroom. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to select participants from two private language institutes in Mashhad, Iran. A hybrid-type Q sampling was employed to produce 40 statements related to the sources of FLLB. Using PQ Method, an exclusive statistical package for Q methodology, the Q sorts were intercorrelated and factor-analyzed. Three factors were extracted and rotated using varimax rotation and hand adjustment. Factor arrays and qualitative analyses were utilized to find and interpret three different accounts of FLLB. The three factors showed that the students held three divergent prototypical points of view about the sources of boredom experienced in EFL learning in class: (a) teacher-induced boredom, (b) student-induced boredom, and (c) activity-induced boredom. The findings also showed that different learner prototypes experience FLLB distinctly. Thus teachers should consider using different strategies to prevent or reduce this negative emotion in the context of L2 learning since otherwise this process could be impeded.

https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.1.3
pdf

References

Brown, S. R. (1980). Political subjectivity: Applications of Q methodology in political science. Yale University Press.

Chapman, K. E. (2013). Boredom in the German foreign language classroom (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations Publishing Publication (No. 3566370).

Collins, L., & Angelova, M. (2015). What helps TESOL methods students learn: Using Q methodology to investigate student views of a graduate TESOL methods class. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 27(2), 247-260.

Damrad-Frye, R., & Laird, J. D. (1989). The experience of boredom: The role of the self-perception of attention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 315-320.

Derakhshan, A., Kruk, M., Mehdizadeh, M., & Pawlak, M. (2021). Boredom in online classes in the Iranian EFL context: Sources and solutions. System, 101, 102556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102556

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). Psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dörnyei, Z., MacIntyre, P. D., & Henry, A. (2015). Motivational dynamics in language learning. Multilingual Matters.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. Routledge.

Eastwood, J. D., Cavaliere, C., Fahlman, S. A., & Eastwood, A. E. (2007). A desire for desires: Boredom and its relation to alexithymia. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1035-1045.

Eastwood, J. D., Frischen, A., Fenske, M. J., & Smilek, D. (2012). The unengaged mind: Defining boredom in terms of attention. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(5), 482-495.

Fahlman, S. A. (2009). Development and validation of the multidimensional state boredom scale (Doctoral dissertation, York University). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.

Fraschini, N., & Park, H. (2021). Anxiety in language teachers: Exploring the variety of perceptions with Q methodology. Foreign Language Annals. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12527

Gkonou, C., Daubney, M., & Dewaele, J.-M. (Eds.) (2017). New insights into language anxiety: Theory, research and educational implications. Multilingual Matters.

Goetz, T., & Hall, N. C. (2014). Academic boredom. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), Educational psychology handbook series: International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 311-330). Routledge.

Goldberg, Y., Eastwood, J., LaGuardia, J., & Danckert, J. (2011). Boredom: An emotional experience distinct from apathy, anhedonia, or depression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30, 647-666.

Harris, M. B. (2000). Correlates and characteristics of boredom proneness and boredom. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 576-598.

Hill, A. B. & Perkins, R. E. (1985). Towards a model of boredom. British Journal of Psychology, 76(2), 235-240.

Irie, K. (2014). Q methodology for post-social-turn research in SLA. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(1), 13-32. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.1.2

Irie, K., & Ryan, S. (2014). Study abroad and the dynamics of change in learner L2 self-concept. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 520-552). Multilingual Matters.

Irie, K., Ryan, S., & Mercer, S. (2018). Using Q methodology to investigate pre-service EFL teachers’ mindsets about teaching competences. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(3), 575-598. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.3.3

Jodaei, H., Zareian, G., Amirian, S. M. R., & Adel, S. M. R. (2021). The interplay of teacher motivation and learner motivation: A Q method study. Current Psychology, 40(1),1696-1710.

Komorowska, H. (2016). Difficulty and coping strategies in language education: Is positive psychology misrepresented in SLA/FLT? In Gabryś-Barker D. & Gałajda D. (Eds.). Positive psychology perspectives on foreign language learning and teaching. Springer.

Kruk, M. (2016). Variations in motivation, anxiety and boredom in learning English in Second Life. The EuroCALL Review, 24(1), 25-39. https://doi.org/10.4995/eurocall.2016.5693

Kruk, M., Pawlak, M., & Zawodniak, J. (2021). Another look at boredom in language instruction: The role of the predictable and the unexpected. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 15-40. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.2

Kruk, M., & Zawodniak J. (2017). Nuda a praktyczna nauka języka angielskiego. Neofilolog, 49(1), 115-131.

Kruk, M., & Zawodniak, J. (2018). Boredom in practical English language classes: Insights from interview data. In L. Szymański, J. Zawodniak, A. Łobodziec, & M. Smoluk (Eds.), Interdisciplinary views on the English language, literature and culture (pp. 177-191). Uniwersytet Zielonogórski.

Kruk, M., & Zawodniak. J. (2020). A comparative study of the experience of boredom in the L2 and L3 classroom. English Teaching and Learning, 44, 417-437. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42321-020-00056-0

Larson, R. W., & Richards, M. H. (1991). Boredom in the middle school years: Blaming schools versus blaming students. American Journal of Education, 99(4), 418-433.

LePera, N. (2011). Relationships between boredom proneness, mindfulness, anxiety, depression and substance use. The New Psychology Bulletin, 8(2), 15-25.

Li, C. (2021). A control-value theory approach to boredom in English class among university students in China. Modern Language Journal, 105, 317-334. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12693

Li, C., Dewaele, J-M., & Hu, Y. (2021). Foreign language learning boredom: Conceptualization and measurement. Applied Linguistics Review. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0124

Macklem, G. L. (2015). Boredom in the classroom: Addressing student motivation, self-regulation, and engagement in learning. Springer.

Mercer-Lynn, K. B., Bar, R. J., & Eastwood, J. D. (2014). Causes of boredom: The person, the situation, or both? Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 122-126.

Nakamura, S., Darasawang, P., & Reinders, H. (2021). A practitioner study on the implementation of strategy instruction for boredom regulation. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688211010272

Pawlak, M. (2020). Individual differences and good language teachers. In C. Griffiths & Z. Tajeddin (Eds.), Lessons from good language teachers (pp. 121-132). Cambridge University Press.

Pawlak, M., Kruk, M., Zawodniak, J., & Pasikowski, S. (2020a). Investigating factors responsible for boredom in English classes: The case of advanced learners. System, 97, 102259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102259

Pawlak, M., Kruk, M., & Zawodniak, J. (2020b). Investigating individual trajectories in experiencing boredom in the language classroom: The case of 11 Polish students of English. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820914004

Pawlak, M., Zawodniak, J. & Kruk, M. (2020c). Boredom in the foreign language classroom: A micro-perspective. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-50769-5

Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315-341.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., & Perry, R. P. (2010). Boredom in achievement settings: Exploring control-value antecedents and performance outcomes of a neglected emotion. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 531-549.

Pemberton, R., & Cooker, L. (2012). Self-directed learning: Concepts, practice, and a novel research methodology. In S. Mercer, S. Ryan, & M. Williams (Eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory, and practice (pp. 305-327). Palgrave Macmillan.

Rimm-Kaufman, S., Storm, M., Sawyer, B., Pianta, R., & LaParo, K. (2006). The teacher belief Q-sort: A measure of teachers’ priorities in relation to disciplinary practices, teaching practices, and beliefs about children. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 141-165.

Rodriguez, L. A., & Shepard, M. (2013). Adult English language learners’ perceptions of audience response systems (clickers) as communication aides: A Q-Methodology study. TESOL Journal, 4, 182-193.

Schmolck, P. (2002). PQ method (version 2.35). Retrieved from: http://schmolck.userweb.mwn.de/qmethod/

Slaughter, Y., Lo Bianco, J., Aliani, R., Cross, R., & Hajek, J. (2019). Language programming in rural and regional Victoria: Making space for local viewpoints in policy development. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 42(3), 274-300.

Stainton Rogers, R. (1995). Q methodology. In J. A. Smith, R. Harre, & L. V. Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking methods in psychology (pp. 178-192). Sage.

Suárez-Orozco, M., & Suárez-Orozco, C. (2013). Taking perspective: Context, culture, and history. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 141, 9-23.

Thackray, R. I. (1981). The stress of boredom and monotony: A consideration of the evidence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 43(2), 165-176.

Thomas, D., & Baas, L. (1992). The issue of generalization in Q methodology: Reliable schematics revisited. Operant Subjectivity, 16(1/2), 18-36.

Toth, Z. (2010). Foreign language anxiety and the advanced language learner: A study of Hungarian students of English as a foreign language. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Tulis, M., & Fulmer, S. M. (2013). Students’ motivational and emotional experiences and their relationship to persistence during academic challenge in mathematics and reading. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 35-46.

Watts, S., & Stenner, P. (2003). Q methodology, quantum theory and psychology. Operant Subjectivity, 26(1), 155-173.

Watts, S., & Stenner, P. (2012). Doing Q methodological research: Theory, method and interpretation. Sage.

Weinerman, J., & Kenner, C. (2016). Boredom: That which shall not be named. Journal of Developmental Education, 40(1), 18-23.

Zawodniak, J., & Kruk, M. (2018). Wpływ świata wirtualnego Second Life na zmiany w poziomie motywacji, lęku językowego i doświadczenia nudy u studentów filologii angielskiej. Neofilolog, 50(1), 65-85. https://doi.org/10.30438/ksj.2017.5.4.3

Zawodniak, J., Kruk, M., & Chumas, J. (2017). Towards conceptualizing boredom as an emotion in the EFL academic context. Konin Language Studies, 5(4), 425-441.