Exploring language learners’ anxiety is not a neglected area of inquiry in applied linguistics research, which can primarily be attributed to the publication of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), an influential instrument developed by Horwitz et al. (1986) to measure language anxiety. An ever-growing array of studies has employed the FLCAS and analyzed the underlying relationship between the focal construct and foreign language achievement, various individual difference variables and a variety of demographic variables, such as learning experiences, age, and gender. Despite the considerable number of publications, studies focusing on biographical variables and language anxiety have not been conclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to analyze 48 studies that employed the FLCAS to look at the potential gender differences with respect to language anxiety. Although there is great variation in the methodological and reporting practices in the studies included, and findings show a tendency for females to experience higher foreign language anxiety, gender-related differences are not statistically significant. The results of moderator analyses showed that neither age nor target language, regional context, or, in the case of university students, their majors, influence this relationship.
Abood, M. H., & Abu-Melhim, A-R. H. (2015). Examining the effectiveness of group counseling in reducing anxiety for Jordanian EFL learners. Journal of Lan-guage Teaching and Research, 6(4), 749-757. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0604.06
Abood, M. H., & Ahouari-idri, N. (2017). The effect of group counselling based on the modification of negative self-statements on reducing gender-biased foreign language anxiety among Ajloun National University stu-dents. Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies, 11(4), 730-735. https://doi.org/10.24200/jeps.vol11iss4pp730-735
Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope’s construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese. Modern Language Jour-nal, 78(2), 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02026.x
Al-Shuaibi, J., Ayman M. H-M., & Saleh, N. A. (2014). Foreing language anxiety among students studying foreign languages. Life Science Journal, 11(8), 197-203.
Amengual-Pizzaro, M. (2018). Foreign language classroom anxiety among English for specific purposes (ESP) students. International Journal of English Studies, 18(2), 145-159. https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2018/2/323311
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the Ameri-can Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Associa-tion. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
Amiri, M., & Ghonsooly, B. (2015). The relationship between English learning anxie-ty and the students’ achievement on examinations. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6(4), 855-865. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0604.20
Arnaiz, P., & Guillén, P. (2012). Foreign language anxiety in a Spanish university setting: Interpersonal differences. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 17(1), 5-26.
Bensalem, E. (2019). The relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and background variables in a multilingual context. International Journal of English Linguistics, 9(6), 249-256. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v9n6p249
Borenstein, M., Hedges L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2005). Com-prehensive meta-analysis (version 2.2.027) [Computer software].
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Intro-duction to meta-analysis. John Wiley & Sons.
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2010). A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Research Synthesis Methods, 1(2), 97-111. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.12
Borenstein, M., Higgins, J. P. T., Hedges, L. V., & Rothstein, H. R. (2016). Basics of meta-analysis: I2 is not an absolute measure of heterogeneity. Re-search Synthesis Methods, 8(1), 5-18. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1230
Botes, E., Dewaele, J-M., & Greiff, S. (2020). The foreign language classroom anxiety scale and academic achievement: An overview of the prevailing literature and a meta-analysis. Journal for the Psychology of Language Learning, 2(1), 26-56. https://doi.org/10.52598/jpll/2/1/3
Briesmaster, M., & Briesmaster-Paredes, J. (2015). The relationship between teaching styles and NNPSETs’ anxiety levels. System, 49, 145-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.01.012
Campbell, C. M. (1999). Language anxiety in men and women: Dealing with gender difference in the language classroom. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language learning: a practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere (pp. 191-215). McGraw Hill.
Campbell, C. M., & Shaw, V. M. (1994). Language anxiety and gender differ-ences in adult second language learners: Exploring the relationship. In C. A. Klee (Ed.), Faces in a crowd: The individual learner in multi-section courses (pp. 47-80). Heinle & Heinle.
Capan, S. A., & Simsek, H. (2012). General foreign language anxiety among EFL learners: A survey study. Frontiers in Language and Teaching, 3, 116-124.
Card, N. A. (2012). Applied meta-analysis for social science research. The Guil-ford Press.
Cheng, Y. (2002). Factors associated with foreign language writing anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 35(6), 647-656. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2002.tb01903.x
Cocorada, E., & Maican, A. (2013). A study of foreign language anxiety with Roma-nian students. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, 6(2), 9-18.
Cooper, H., Hedges, L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (2019). The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (3rd ed.). Russell Sage Foundation.
Çubuçku, F. (2008). A study of the correlations between self efficacy and for-eign language learning anxiety. Journal of Theory and Practice in Educa-tion, 4(1), 148-158.
Cui, J. (2011). Research on high school students’ English learning anxiety. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(4), 875-880. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.2.4.875-880
Csizér, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (2005). Language learners’ motivational profiles and their motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 55(4), 613-659. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.00238333.2005.00319.x
Debreli, E., & Demirkan, S. (2016). Sources and levels of foreign language speaking anxiety of English as a foreign language university students with regard to language proficiency and gender. International Journal of Eng-lish Language Education, 4(1), 49-62. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijele.v4i1.8715
Derrick, D. J. (2015). Instrument reporting practices in second language re-search. TESOL Quarterly, 50(1), 132-153. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.217
Dewaele, J.-M. (2002). Psychological and sociodemographic correlates of com-municative anxiety in L2 and L3 production. International Journal of Bi-lingualism, 6(1), 23-38. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069020060010201
Dewaele, J.-M. (2005). Investigating the psychological and emotional dimensions in instructed language learning: Obstacles and possibilities. Modern Language Journal, 89(3), 367-380. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2005.00311.x
Dewaele, J.-M. (2007). The effect of multilingualism, sociobiographical, and situational factors on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxie-ty of mature language learners. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(4), 391-409. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069070110040301
Dewaele, J.-M. (2013a). Emotions in multiple languages (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmil-lan.
Dewaele, J.-M. (2013b). The link between foreign language classroom anxiety and psychoticism. Extraversion and neuroticism among adult bi- and multilinguals. Modern Language Journal, 97(3), 670-684. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.15404781.2013.12036.x
Dewaele, J.-M., Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2008). The effects of trait emo-tional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals: A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58(4), 911-960. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14679922.2008.00482.x
Dewaele, J.-M., MacIntyre, P. D., Boudreau, C., & Dewaele, L. (2016). Do girls have all the fun? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language class-room. Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition, 2(1), 41-63. https://journals.us.edu.pl/index.php/TAPSLA/article/view/3941/3090
Dogan, Y., & Tuncer, M. (2016). Examination of foreign language classroom anxiety and achievement in foreign language in Turkish university stu-dents in terms of various variables. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(5), 18-29. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i5.1337
Donovan, L., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2004). Age and sex differences in willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, and self-perceived compe-tence. Communication Research Reports, 21(4), 420-427. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090409360006
Duval, S. (2005). The trim and fill method. In H. R. Rothstein, A. J. Sutton, & M. Borenstein (Eds.), Publication bias in meta-analysis: Prevention, assess-ment and adjustments (pp. 127-144). John Wiley & Sons.
Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot-based meth-od of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biomet-rics, 56, 455-463. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006341x.2000.00455.x
Elaldi, S. (2016). Foreign language anxiety of students studying English lan-guage and literature: A sample from Turkey. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(6), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2015.2507
Elkhafaifi, H. (2005). Listening comprehension and anxiety in the Arabic lan-guage classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89(2), 206-220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.15404781.2005.00275.x
Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning, and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13(4), 363-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/00926566(79)900011
Farjami, H., & Amerian, M. (2012). Relationship between EFL learners’ per-ceived social self-efficacy and their foreign language classroom anxiety. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 4(10), 77-103.
Gerencheal, B. (2016). Gender differences in foreign language anxiety at an Ethiopian university: Mizan-Tepi University third year English major stu-dents in focus. African Journal of Education and Practice, 1(1), 1-16. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED582461.pdf
Ghorban Dordinejad, F., & Moradian Ahmadabad, R. (2014). Examination of the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and English achievement among male and female Iranian high school students. In-ternational Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 6(4), 446-460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936015-93715
Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (Eds.). (2008). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: Cochrane book series. Wiley-Blackwell.
Hismanoglu, M. (2013). Foreign language anxiety of English language teacher candidates: A sample from Turkey. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sci-ences, 93, 930-937. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.306
Hoekstra, R., Vugteveen, J., Warrens, M. J., & Kruyen, P. M. (2018). An empirical analysis of alleged misunderstandings of coefficient alpha. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 22(4), 351-364. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2018.1547523
Horwitz, E. K. (2017). On the misreading of Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) and the need to balance anxiety research and the experiences of anxious lan-guage learners. In C. Gkonou, M. Daubney, & J.-M. Dewaele (Eds.), New in-sights into language anxiety: Theory, research and educational implications (pp. 31-48). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097722003
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. https://doi.org/10.2307/327317
Huang, H.-T. D. (2018). Modeling the relationships between anxieties and perfor-mance in second/foreign language speaking assessment. Learning and Indi-vidual Differences, 36, 44-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.03.002
Karabıyık, C., & Özkan, N. (2017). Foreign language anxiety: A study at Ufuk University preparatory school. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2), 667-680.
Kitano, K. (2001). Anxiety in the college Japanese language classroom. Modern Lan-guage Journal, 85(4), 549-566. https://doi.org/10.1111/00267902.00125
Kleinmann, H. H. (1977). Avoidance behavior in adult second language acquisi-tion. Language Learning, 27(1), 93-107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14671770.1977.tb00294.x
Larsen-Hall, J., & Plonsky, L. (2015). Reporting and interpreting quantitative research findings: What gets reported and recommendations for the field. Language Learning, 65, 127-159. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12115
Latif, N. A. B. (2015). A study on English language anxiety among adult learn-ers in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). Procedia – Social and Behav-ioral Sciences, 208, 223-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.198
Levitt, E. (1980). The psychology of anxiety (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum.
Li, S., Shintani, N., & Ellis, R. (2012). Doing meta-analysis in SLA: Practice, choice, and standards. Contemporary Foreign Language Studies, 384(12), 1-17.
Lileikienė, A., & Danilevičienė, L. (2016). Foreign language anxiety in student learning. Baltic Journal of Sport & Health Science, 3(102), 18-23. https://doi.org/10.33607/bjshs.v3i102.61
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Sage Publica-tions.
MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of the research for lan-guage teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and sec-ond language learning: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety class-room atmosphere (pp. 24-45). McGraw-Hill College.
MacIntyre, P. D. (2017). An overview of language anxiety research and trends in its development. In C. Gkonou, M. Daubney, & J.-M. Dewaele (Eds.), New in-sights into language anxiety: Theory, research and educational implications (pp. 11-30). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097722003
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second-language learn-ing: Toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39(2), 251-275. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14671770.1989.tb00423.x
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Language anxiety: Its relationship to other anxieties and to processing in native and second languages. Lan-guage Learning, 41(4), 513-534. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14671770.1991.tb00691.x
Matsuda, S., & Gobel, P. (2004). Anxiety and predictors of performance in the foreign language classroom. System, 32, 21-36.
Mejías, H., Applebaum, R. L., Applebaum, S.J., & Trotter, R. T. (1991). Oral communication apprehension and Hispanics: An exploration of oral communication apprehension among Mexican American students in Tex-as. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 87-97). Prentice Hall.
Merzin, A., & Alandal, A. (2015). An investigation of anxiety among elemen-tary school students towards foreign language learning. Studies in Litera-ture and Language, 10(6), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3968/7180
Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L. (2006). Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Bailey, P., & Daley, C. E. (2000). Cognitive, affective, per-sonality, and demographic predictors of foreign-language achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220670009598738
Özer, S. (2019). An investigation of attitude, motivation and anxiety levels of students studying at a faculty of tourism towards vocational English course. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(2), 560-577. https://doi.org/10.17263/jlls.586246
Öztürk, G., & Gürbüz, N. (2013). The impact of gender on foreign language speaking anxiety and motivation. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sci-ences, 70, 654-665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.106
Park, G.-P. (2014). Factor analysis of the foreign language classroom anxiety scale in Korean learners of English as a foreign language. Psychological Reports, 115(1), 261-275. https://doi.org/10.2466/28.11.PR0.115c10z2
Park, G.-P., & French, B. F. (2013). Gender differences in the foreign language classroom anxiety scale. System, 41(2), 462-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.04.001
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2012). How to do a meta-analysis. In A. Mackey & S. M. Gass (Eds.), Research methods in second language acquisition: A practical guide (pp. 275-295). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444347340.ch14
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878-912. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12079
Ra, J., & Rhee, K. J. (2018). Detection of gender related DIF in the foreign lan-guage classroom anxiety scale. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 18(1), 47-60. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2018.1.0606
Rastegar, M., Akbarzadeh, M., & Heidari, N. (2012). The darker side of motiva-tion: Demotivation and its relation with two variables of anxiety among Iranian EFL learners. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2012(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/215605
Rodríguez, Y., Delgado, V., & Colón, J. M. (2009). Foreign language writing anx-iety among preservice EFL teachers. Lenguas Modernas, 33, 21-31.
Sankueana, W. (2018, July 14-15). Foreign language classroom anxiety of Thai high school students [Conference presentation]. 11th International Con-ference on Language, Literature, Culture and Education.
Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28(1), 129-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14671770.1978.tb00309.x
Spielberger, C. D. (1966). Theory and research on anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior (pp. 3-20). Academic Press.
Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI Form Y). Consulting Psychologist Press.
Sultan, S. (2012). Students’ perceived competence affecting level of anxiety in learning English as a foreign language. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 27(2), 225-239.
Taghinezhad, A., Abdollahzadeh, P., Dastpak, M., & Rezaei, Z. (2016). Investi-gating the impact of gender on foreign language learning anxiety of Ira-nian EFL learners. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 6(5), 418-426.
Tanielian, A. R. (2017). Foreign language anxiety among first-year Saudi uni-versity students. The International Education Journal: Comparative Per-spectives, 16(2), 116-130.
Teimouri, Y., Goetze, J., & Plonsky, L. (2019). Second language anxiety and achievement: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 363-387. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263118000311
Wang, Y., & Jingna, L. (2011, May 27-29). The interference of foreign language anxiety in the reading comprehension of agricultural engineering stu-dents [Conference presentation]. 2011 International Conference on New Technology of Agricultural Engineering.
Wei, J., & Yodkamlue, B. (2012). The Chinese Bouyei College students’ classroom anxiety in foreign language learning: A survey study. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(2), 75-90. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v2n2p75
Woodrow, L. (2006). Anxiety and speaking English as a second language. RELC Journal, 37(3), 308-328. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688206071315
Yamini, M., & Tahriri, A. (2006). On the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and global self-esteem among male and female students at different educational levels. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(1), 101-129.
Yan, X. (1998). An examination of foreign language classroom anxiety: Its sources and effects in a college English program in China [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The University of Texas at Austin.
Zasiekina, L., & Zhuravlova, O. (2019). Acculturating stress, language anxiety and procrastination of international students in the academic settings. Psycholin-guistics, 26(1), 126-40. https://doi.org/10.31470/230917972019261126140
Zhang, L. J. (2001). ESL students’ classroom anxiety. Teaching and Learning, 21(2), 51-62.
Zhang, X. (2019). Foreign language anxiety and foreign language performance: A meta-analysis. Modern Language Journal, 103(4), 763-781. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12590
Zhang, Z.-H. (2019). An empirical study on foreign language classroom anxiety of college students. Sino-US English Teaching, 16(9), 376-386. https://doi.org/10.17265/15398072/2019.09.003
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.