Taking stock: A meta-analysis of the effects of foreign language enjoyment

Main Article Content

Elouise Botes
Jean-Marc Dewaele
Samuel Greiff


Studies examining the positive emotion of foreign language enjoyment (FLE) have recently increased exponentially, as researchers are applying the tenets of positive psychology in applied linguistics. It is therefore an appropriate time to take stock of the current literature and conduct a preliminary meta-analysis. The relationships between FLE and four variables, namely, foreign language anxiety (FLA), willingness to communicate (WTC), academic achievement, and self-perceived achievement were examined. A total of k = 96 effect sizes were analyzed with an overall sample size of N = 28,166 in random-effects models with correlation coefficients. There was a moderate negative correlation between FLE and FLA. In turn, moderate positive correlations were found between FLE and WTC, FLE and academic achievement, and FLE and self-perceived achievement. These positive associations confirm the value of FLE in FL learning and further affirm the need for researchers to examine positive psychology constructs in the foreign language classroom.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Botes, E., Dewaele, J.-M., & Greiff, S. (2022). Taking stock: A meta-analysis of the effects of foreign language enjoyment. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 12(2), 205-232. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.2.3
Author Biographies

Elouise Botes, University of Vienna, Austria

Elouise Botes is a post-doc researcher in the Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology at the University of Vienna. She recently graduated with a PhD in psychology from the University of Luxembourg and is a registered organizational psychologist in South Africa. She has published numerous articles examining the emotions in language learning, individual differences in learning and behavior, and psychometric validation studies. Her research interests include emotions in foreign language learning, positive psychology, personality psychology, and individual differences in education.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4952-8386

Contact details: University of Vienna, University of Vienna, Department for Developmental and Educational Psychology, NIG, Universitätsstraße 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria (elouise.botes@univie.ac.at)

Jean-Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK

Jean-Marc Dewaele is Professor of Applied Linguistics and Multilingualism. He has published widely on individual differences in classroom emotions. He is former president of the International Association of Multilingualism and the European Second Language Association and General Editor of the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. He won the Equality and Diversity Research Award from the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (2013), the Robert Gardner Award for Excellence in Second Language and Bilingualism Research (2016) from the International Association of Language and Social Psychology and the EUROSLA Distinguished Scholar Award (2022) from the European Second Language Association.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8480-0977

Contact details: Birkbeck College, University of London, Department of Languages, Cultures, and Applied Linguistics, Malet Street, LondonWC1E 7HX, United Kingdom (j.dewaele@bbk.ac.uk)

Samuel Greiff, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Samuel Greiff is Full Professor of Educational Assessment and psychology at University of Luxembourg. He holds a PhD in cognitive and experimental psychology from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Prof. Greiff has been awarded several research funds by diverse funding organizations, was fellow in the Luxembourg research program of excellency, and has published articles in national and international scientific journals and books. He serves (or has served) as editor for several journals: Editor-in-chief for Learning and Individual Differences and European Journal of Psychological Assessment and Associate Editor for Intelligence and Journal of Educational Psychology. His work mainly focuses on educational and psychological assessment, cognitive and non-cognitive skills, and education in the 21st century.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2900-3734

Contact details: University of Luxembourg, Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences Maison des Sciences Humaines, 11 Porte de Sciences, 4366 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg (samuel.greiff@uni.lu)


  1. Albert, Á., Piniel, K., & Lajtai, Á. (2021). Investigating high school students’ emotions in connection with their EFL classes: A questionnaire study. In A. Fekete, M. Lehman, & K. Simon (Eds.), UPRT 2019: Empirical studies in English applied linguistics in honour of József Horváth (pp. 2-21). Lingua Franca Csoport.
  2. Alenezi, S. M. (2020). Foreign language enjoyment and anxiety among the Northern Borders University EFL students: Links to gender and majors. Journal for Educational, Psychological, and Social Research, 39(185), 1203-1233.‎ https://doi.org/10.21608/jsrep.2020.86081
  3. Amini, D. (2021). Relationship between Persian as foreign language learners’ anxiety, enjoyment and goal orientation. Journal of Teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages, 10(21), 75-100. https://doi.org/10.30479/jtpsol.2021.15250.1525
  4. An, Z., Wang, C., Li, S., Gan, Z., & Li, H. (2021). Technology-assisted self-regulated English language learning: Associations with English language self-efficacy, English enjoyment, and learning outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 3763. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.558466
  5. Barrios, E., & Acosta-Manzano, I. (2021). Factors predicting classroom WTC in English and French as foreign languages among adult learners in Spain. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F13621688211054046
  6. Bashori, M., van Hout, R., Strik, H., & Cucchiarini, C. (2021). Effects of ASR-based websites on EFL learners’ vocabulary, speaking anxiety, and language enjoyment. System, 99, 102496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102496
  7. Bensalem, E. (2022). The impact of enjoyment and anxiety on English-language learners’ willingness to communicate. Vivat Academia. Revista de Comunicación, 91-111. https://doi.org/10.15178/va.2022.155.e1310
  8. Botes, E., Dewaele, J.-M., & Greiff, S. (2020a). The power to improve: Effects of multilingualism and perceived proficiency on enjoyment and anxiety in foreign language learning. European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(2), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1515/eujal-2020-0003
  9. Botes, E., Dewaele, J.-M., & Greiff, S. (2020b). The foreign language classroom anxiety scale and academic achievement: An overview of the prevailing literature and a meta-analysis. Journal for the Psychology of Language Learning, 2(1), 26-56. http://www.jpll.org/index.php/journal/article/view/botesetal
  10. Botes, E., Dewaele, J.-M., & Greiff, S. (2020c). Individual difference variables in foreign language learning [Unpublished raw data]. University of Luxembourg.
  11. Chen, Z., Zhang, P., Lin, Y., & Li, Y. (2021). Interactions of trait emotional intelligence, foreign language anxiety, and foreign language enjoyment in the foreign lan-guage speaking classroom. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2021.1890754
  12. Chiswick, B. R., & Miller, P. W. (2005). Linguistic distance: A quantitative measure of the distance between English and other languages. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 26(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710508668395
  13. Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. C., & Davies, F. (2007). The impact of hope, self-esteem, and attributional style on adolescents’ school grades and emotional well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(6), 1161-1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2007.02.001
  14. De Smet, A., Mettewie, L., Galand, B., Hiligsmann, P., & Van Mensel, L. (2018). Classroom anxiety and enjoyment in CLIL and non-CLIL: Does the target language matter? Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 47-71. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.1.3
  15. Dewaele, J.-M. (2019). The effect of classroom emotions, attitudes toward English, and teacher behavior on willingness to communicate among English foreign language learners. Journal of Language and Social Psy-chology, 38(4), 523-535. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X19864996
  16. Dewaele, J.-M. (2022). The interplay between learner-internal variables and levels of anxiety and enjoyment among Spanish EFL learners. In K. Kersten & A. Winsler (Eds), Understanding variability in second language acquisition, bilingualism, and cognition: A multi-layered perspective. Routledge.
  17. Dewaele, J.-M., & Alfawzan, M. (2018). Does the effect of enjoyment outweigh that of anxiety in foreign language performance? Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 21-45. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.1.2
  18. Dewaele, J.-M., & Dewaele, L. (2017). The dynamic interactions in foreign language classroom anxiety and foreign language enjoyment of pupils aged 12 to 18. A pseudo-longitudinal investigation. Journal of the European Second Language Association, 1(1), 12-22. https://doi.org/10.22599/jesla.6
  19. Dewaele, J.-M., & Dewaele, L. (2018). Learner-internal and learner-external predictors of willingness to communicate in the FL classroom. Journal of the European Second Language Association, 2(1), 24-37. https://doi.org/10.22599/jesla.37
  20. Dewaele, J.-M., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2014). The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 237-274. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.2.5
  21. Dewaele, J.-M., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2016). Foreign language enjoyment and foreign language classroom anxiety. The right and left feet of FL learning? In P. MacIntyre, T. Gregersen, & S. Mercer (Eds.), Positive Psychology in SLA (pp. 215-236). Multilingual Matters. http://www.multilingual-matters.com/display.asp?K=9781783095353
  22. Dewaele, J.-M. & MacIntyre, P. D. (2019). The predictive power of multicultural personality traits, learner and teacher variables on foreign language enjoyment and anxiety. In M. Sato & S. Loewen (Eds.), Evidence-based second language pedagogy: A collection of instructed second language acquisition studies (pp. 263-286). Routledge.
  23. Dewaele, J.-M., & Proietti Ergün, A. L. (2020). How different are the relations be-tween enjoyment, anxiety, attitudes/motivation and course marks in pupils’ Italian and English as foreign languages? Journal of the European Second Language Association, 4(1), 45-57. https://doi.org/10.22599/jesla.65
  24. Dewaele, J.-M., Chen, X., Padilla, A.M., & Lake, J. (2019). The flowering of positive psychology in foreign language teaching and acquisition research. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2128. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02128
  25. Dewaele, J.-M., MacIntyre, P. D., Boudreau, C., & Dewaele, L. (2016). Do girls have all the fun? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language class-room. Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition, 2(1), 41-63. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=415141
  26. Dewaele, J.-M., Özdemir, C., Karci, D., Uysal, S., Özdemir, E. D., & Balta, N. (2022). How distinctive is the foreign language enjoyment and foreign language classroom anxiety of Kazakh learners of Turkish? Applied Lin-guistics Review, 13(2), 243-265. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2019-0021
  27. Dewaele, J.-M., Witney, J., Saito, K., & Dewaele, L. (2018). Foreign language enjoyment and anxiety: The effect of teacher and learner variables. Language Teaching Research, 22(6), 676-697. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168817692161
  28. Dewey, D. P., Belnap, R. K., & Steffen, P. (2018). Anxiety: Stress, foreign language classroom anxiety, and enjoyment during study abroad in Amman, Jordan. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 38, 140-161. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190518000107
  29. Dupuy, B. C. (1997). Literature circles: An alternative framework for increasing intermediate FL students’ comprehension and enjoyment of texts in the target language. Mosaic: A Journal for Language Teachers, 5(1), 13-16.
  30. Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). A nonparametric “Trim and Fill” method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95(449), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2000.10473905
  31. Fraschini, N., & Tao, Y. (2021). Emotions in online language learning: Exploratory findings from an ab initio Korean course. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2021.1968875
  32. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218
  33. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. In P. Devine & A. Plant (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1-53). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407236-7.00001-2
  34. Guo, Y. (2021). Exploring the dynamic interplay between foreign language enjoyment and learner engagement with regard to EFL achievement and absenteeism: A sequential mixed methods study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 766058 https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpsyg.2021.766058
  35. Guolo, A., & Varin, C. (2017). Random-effects meta-analysis: The number of studies matters. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 26(3), 1500-1518. https://doi.org/10.1177/0962280215583568
  36. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Academic Press.
  37. Higgins, J. P., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta‐analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21(11), 1539-1558. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.1186
  38. Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43(2), 154-167. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480999036X
  39. Huedo-Medina, T. B., Sánchez-Meca, J., Marín-Martínez, F., & Botella, J. (2006). Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I2 index? Psychological Methods, 11(2), 193-206. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.11.2.193
  40. Hung, M. T. (2020). Teacher support and intrinsic motivation: The mediating roles of enjoyment, anxiety, and self-efficacy. Theses and Dissertations, 4217. https://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/td/4217
  41. Jiang, Y., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2019). How unique is the foreign language class-room enjoyment and anxiety of Chinese EFL learners? System, 82, 13-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.02.017
  42. Jin, Y., & Zhang, L. J. (2021). The dimensions of foreign language classroom enjoyment and their effect on foreign language achievement. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 24(7), 948-962. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1526253
  43. Karimi, M. N., & Abaszadeh, A. (2017). Autonomy-supportive teaching, willingness to communicate in English, motivation, and English speaking self-efficacy among EFL Learners: A structural equation modelling study. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 20(2), 113-156. https://ijal.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2825-fa.pdf
  44. Kassem, H.M. (2021). EFL enjoyment of Saudi English majors and its relation to their achievement, autonomy and self-efficacy. المجلة التربوية لکلية التربية بسوهاج, 82(82), 61-90.‎ https://doi.org/10.21608/edusohag.2021.137623
  45. Khajavy, G. H. (2021). Modeling the relations between foreign language engagement, emotions, grit and reading achievement. In P. Hiver, A. H. Al-Hoorie, & S. Mercer (Eds.), Student engagement in the language class-room (pp. 241-259). Multilingual Matters.
  46. Khajavy, G. H., MacIntyre, P. D., & Barabadi, E. (2018). Role of the emotions and classroom environment in willingness to communicate. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(3), 605-624. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263117000304
  47. Kondo, D. S., & Ying-Ling, Y. (2004). Strategies for coping with language anxiety: The case of students of English in Japan. ELT Journal, 58(3), 258-265. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/58.3.258
  48. Kralova, Z., Kamenicka, J., & Tirpakova, A. (2022). Positive emotional stimuli in teaching foreign language vocabulary. System, 104, 102678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102678
  49. *Kun, Y., Senom, F., & Peng, C. F. (2020). Relationship between willingness to communicate in English and foreign language enjoyment. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(10), 4853-4862. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.081057
  50. Lackaye, T., & Margalit, M. (2008). Self-efficacy, loneliness, effort, and hope: Developmental differences in the experiences of students with learning disabilities and their non-learning disabled peers at two age groups. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 6(2), 1-20.
  51. Lee, J. S. (2020). The role of grit and classroom enjoyment in EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1746319
  52. Lee, J. S., Xie, Q., & Lee, K. (2021). Informal digital learning of English and L2 willingness to communicate: Roles of emotions, gender, and educational stage. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2021.1918699
  53. Li, C. (2020). A positive psychology perspective on Chinese EFL students’ trait emotional intelligence, foreign language enjoyment and EFL learning achievement. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 41, 246-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2019.1614187
  54. Li, C., & Xu, J. (2019). Trait emotional intelligence and classroom emotions: A positive psychology investigation and intervention among Chinese EFL learners. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2453. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02453
  55. Li, C., Dewaele, J.-M., & Jiang, G. (2020). The complex relationship between classroom emotions and EFL achievement in China. Applied Linguistics Review, 11(3), 485-510. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2018-0043
  56. Li, C., Huang, J., & Li, B. (2021). The predictive effects of classroom environment and trait emotional intelligence on foreign language enjoyment and anxiety. System, 96, 102393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102393
  57. Liu, E., & Wang, J. (2021). Examining the relationship between grit and foreign language performance: Enjoyment and anxiety as mediators. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. 666892. https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpsyg.2021.666892
  58. Liu, M., & Hong, M. (2021). English language classroom anxiety and enjoyment in Chinese young learners. SAGE Open. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2158 2440211047550
  59. Love, J., Dropmann, D., & Selker, R. (2018). Jamovi (0.9) [Computer software]. Jamovi Project. https://www.jamovi.org
  60. MacIntyre, P. D. (2016). So far so good: An overview of positive psychology and its contributions to SLA. In D. Gabryś-Barker & D. Gałajda (Eds.), Positive psychology perspectives on foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 3-20). Springer.
  61. MacIntyre, P. D. (2017). An overview of language anxiety research and trends in its development. In C. Gkonou, M. Daubney & J.-M. Dewaele (Eds.), New insights into language anxiety: Theory, research and educational implications (pp. 11-30). Multilingual Matters.
  62. MacIntyre, P. D., & Ayers-Glassey, S. (2021). Measuring willingness to communicate. In P. Winke & T. Brunfaut (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition and language testing (pp. 187-198). Routledge.
  63. MacIntyre, P. D., Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (2019). Setting an agenda for positive psychology in SLA: Theory, practice, and research. Modern Language Journal, 103(1), 262-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12544
  64. Mahmoodzadeh, M., & Khajavy, G. H. (2018). Towards conceptualizing language learning curiosity in SLA: An empirical study. Journal of Psycholinguistic Re-search, 48(2), 333-351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-018-9606-3
  65. Maican, M. A., & Cocoradă, E. (2021). Online foreign language learning in higher education and its correlates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(2), 781. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020781
  66. Mercer, S., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2014). Introducing positive psychology to SLA. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 153-172. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.2.2
  67. Mierzwa, E. (2018). The relationship between foreign language enjoyment and gender among secondary grammar school students. The Journal of Education, Culture, and Society, 1(2), 117-135. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs20182.117.135
  68. Moskowitz, S., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2020). The role of intellectual humility in foreign language enjoyment and foreign language classroom anxiety. Eurasian Jour-nal of Applied Linguistics, 6(3), 521-541. https://doi.org/10.32601/ejal.834664
  69. Motiei, G. (2019). Learner perceptions of emotions in the foreign language class-room: A one-year study of the connections between anxiety, enjoyment, per-formance and individual differences in adult education [Doctoral dissertation, Universitat Pompeu Fabra]. https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/667129
  70. Oxford, R. (2017). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context. Routledge.
  71. Özer, Z. (2020). Exploring the link between anxiety, enjoyment, and achievement in foreign language classes [Doctoral dissertation, Hacettepe University]. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11655/23260
  72. Pan, C., & Zhang, X. (2021). A longitudinal study of foreign language anxiety and enjoyment. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168821993341
  73. Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. Oxford University Press.
  74. Piechurska-Kuciel E. (2017). L2 or L3? Foreign language enjoyment and proficiency. In D. Gabryś-Barker, D. Gałajda, A. Wojtaszek, & P. Zakrajewski (Eds.), Multiculturalism, multilingualism and the self (pp. 97-111). Springer.
  75. Resnik, P., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2020). Trait emotional intelligence, positive and negative emotions in first and foreign language classes: A mixed-methods ap-proach. System, 94, 102324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102324
  76. Resnik, P., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2021). Learner emotions, autonomy and trait emotional intelligence in ‘in-person’ versus emergency remote English foreign language teaching in Europe. Applied Linguistics Review. https:// doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0096
  77. Rezazadeh, M., & Zarrinabadi, N. (2020). Examining need for closure and need for cognition as predictors of foreign language anxiety and enjoyment. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 41, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1798972
  78. Robson, G. G. (2015). The relationship between WTC and oral proficiency measurements in the study abroad context. International Education Studies, 8(12), 56-69. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n12p56
  79. Sato, R. (2020). Examining fluctuations in the WTC of Japanese EFL speakers: Language proficiency, affective and conditional factors. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820977825
  80. Seligman, M. (2018). PERMA and the building blocks of well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(4), 333-335. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2018.1437466
  81. Shao, K., Pekrun, R., Marsh, H. W., & Loderer, K. (2020). Control-value appraisals, achievement emotions, and foreign language performance: A latent interaction analysis. Learning and Instruction, 69, 101356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2020.101356
  82. Sparks, R. L., Ganschow, L., Patton, J., Artzer, M., Siebenhar, D., & Plageman, M. (1997). Prediction of foreign language proficiency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 549. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-0663.89.3.549
  83. Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J. (2006). Na-tive language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude. Annals of Dyslexia, 56(1), 129-160. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11881-006-0006-2
  84. Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidelhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honor of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 125-144). Oxford University Press.
  85. Taufik, J. R., Tiatri, S., & Sari, M. P. (2021). English task value: The effect of foreign language enjoyment and foreign language anxiety. In S. Tiatri & L. C. Seong (Eds.), International conference on economics, business, social, and humanities (pp. 40-44). Atlantis Press.
  86. Tetzner, J., & Becker, M. (2018). Think positive? Examining the impact of optimism on academic achievement in early adolescents. Journal of Personality, 86(2), 283-295. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12312
  87. Uzun, K. (2017). Compulsory English courses in higher education: A source of angst or thrill? The Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 1-20. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jltl/issue/42180/507815
  88. Valentine, J. C., Pigott, T. D., & Rothstein, H. R. (2010). How many studies do you need? A primer on statistical power for meta-analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 35(2), 215-247. https://doi.org/10.3102/ 1076998609346961
  89. Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analysis in R with the metafor Package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(1), 1-48. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v036.i03
  90. Wang, Y., Shen, B., & Yu, X. (2021). A latent profile analysis of EFL learners’ self-efficacy: Associations with academic emotions and language proficiency. System, 103, 102633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102633
  91. Wei, H., Gao, K., & Wang, W. (2019). Understanding the relationship between grit and foreign language performance among middle school students: The roles of foreign language enjoyment and classroom environment. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01508
  92. Yang, B. (2021). Predicting EFL learners’ achievement from their two faces – FLE and FLCA. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 11(3), 275-285. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.1103.07
  93. Yashima, T., Zenuk‐Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54(1), 119-152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00250.x
  94. Yates, S. M. (2002). The influence of optimism and pessimism on student achievement in mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 14, 4-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03217113
  95. Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 426-439. https://doi.org/10.2307/329492
  96. Zhang, H., Dai, Y., & Wang, Y. (2020). Motivation and second foreign language proficiency: The mediating role of foreign language enjoyment. Sustain-ability, 12(4), 1302. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041302
  97. Zhang, J., Beckmann, N., & Beckmann, J. F. (2018). To talk or not to talk: A re-view of situational antecedents of willingness to communicate in the second language classroom. System, 72, 226-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.01.003
  98. Zhang, T., Chen, X., Hu, J., & Ketwan, P. (2021). EFL students’ preferences for written corrective feedback: Do error types, language proficiency, and foreign language enjoyment matter? Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.660564