Is learning really just believing? A meta-analysis of self-efficacy and achievement in SLA

Main Article Content

Julia Goetze
Meagan Driver

Abstract

The positive psychology movement (Seligman, 1998) has contributed to the proclamation of a positive turn in second language acquisition (SLA) (MacIntyre et al., 2016). Within the context of individual differences, self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997), an individual’s judgment of their capability to achieve goals, has gained particular interest in language learning (e.g., Lake, 2013). The present study meta-analyzes a body of research that has investigated the relationship between second language (L2) self-efficacy and L2 achievement by exploring 1) reporting practices in this domain, 2) the strength and direction of the relationship, and 3) the effects of moderator variables on the self-efficacy-achievement link. A comprehensive literature search uncovered 37 studies, which contributed to a total of 40 independent samples (N = 23,050). The average observed effect in the sample was r = .46. A moderator analysis showed systematic variations in the effect size for learners’ first language, target language, proficiency level, and both self-efficacy and achievement type. We discuss our findings with respect to theoretical constructs and methodological practices and suggest implications for L2 pedagogy and future research into self-efficacy in SLA.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Goetze, J., & Driver, M. (2022). Is learning really just believing? A meta-analysis of self-efficacy and achievement in SLA. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 12(2), 233-259. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.2.4
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Julia Goetze, Pennsylvania State University, State College, USA

Julia Goetze is Assistant Teaching Professor and the German language coordinator in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures, Pennsylvania State University, USA. His research focuses on instructed second language acquisition. She specializes in the investigation of the psychology of teachers in the foreign language classroom, such as teacher emotions and their relationship with cognitive processes, their beliefs and belief system formation, how their behaviors influence language teaching and learning.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4856-760X

Contact details: The Pennsylvania State University 442 Burrowes Building University Park, PA 16802 (jzg5860@psu.edu)

Meagan Driver, Michigan State University, Lansing, USA

Meagan Driver is Assistant Professor in the Department of Romance and Classical Studies and a core faculty member in the Second Language Studies (SLS) PhD Program and the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Dr. Driver is an applied linguist who specializes in mixed-methods approaches to heritage and second language acquisition (SLA). Within this realm, her research implements cognitive theories and methodologies to explore topics including affect, bilingualism and multilingualism and study abroad, and the relationship with a range of linguistic, psychological, and social factors, including vocabulary learning, moral judgment, and identity. Presently, her work explores the relationship between various emotions, including interest and linguistic insecurity, and questions surrounding linguistic and ethnoracial identity, specifically with respect to the acquisition of a heritage or foreign language.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6712-4521

Contact details: 3850 Tunlaw Rd. NW Apt. 805 Washington, DC 20007 (driverme@ msu.edu)

References

  1. Abdallah, M., & Mansour, M. M. (2015). Virtual task-based situated language-learning with Second Life: Developing EFL pragmatic writing and techno-logical self-efficacy. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), Special Issue on CALL (2), 150-182. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2843987
  2. Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2018). The L2 motivational self system: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(4), 721-754. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.4.2
  3. Alamer, A. (2021). Grit and language learning: Construct validation of L2-Grit scale and its relation to later vocabulary knowledge. Educational Psychology, 41(5), 544-562. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2020.1867076
  4. Ale, K., Loh, Y. A., & Chib, A. (2017). Contextualized-OLPC education project in rural India: Measuring learning impact and mediation of computer self-efficacy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(3), 769-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-017-9517-2
  5. Aljaffery, Y. (2015). The influence of English language in the Arab world. GRIN Verlag.
  6. Al Khamisi, H., Al Barwani, T., Al Mekhlafi, A., & Osman, M. E. T. (2016). EFL reading achievement: Impact of gender and self-efficacy beliefs. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 15(3), 54-73.
  7. Alrabai, F. (2018). The association between self-efficacy of Saudi learners and their EFL academic performance. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 8(10), 1351-1360. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0810.14
  8. Anyadubalu, C. C. (2010). Self-efficacy, anxiety, and performance in the English language among middle-school students in English language program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, 5(3), 193-198.
  9. Asakereh, A., & Dehghannezhad, M. (2015). Student satisfaction with EFL speaking classes: Relating speaking self-efficacy and skills achievement. Issues in Educational Research, 25(4), 345-363.
  10. Bai, B., Chao, G. C. N., & Wang, C. (2019). The relationship between social support, self‐efficacy, and English language learning achievement in Hong Kong. TESOL Quarterly, 53(1), 208-221. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.439
  11. Bai, B., Nie, Y., & Lee, A. N. (2020). Academic self-efficacy, task importance and inter-est: relations with English language learning in an Asian context. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1746317
  12. Bai, B., & Wang, J. (2020). The role of growth mindset, self-efficacy and intrinsic value in self-regulated learning and English language learning achievements. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820933190
  13. Balci, Ö. (2017). The effects of learning-style based activities on students’ reading comprehension skills and self-efficacy perceptions in English foreign language classes. Higher Education Studies, 7(4), 35-54. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v7n4p35
  14. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
  15. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice Hall.
  16. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.
  17. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P., & Rothstein, H. R. (2010). A basic introduction to fixed‐effect and random‐effects models for meta‐analysis. Re-search Synthesis Methods, 1(2), 97-111. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.12
  18. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2013). Comprehensive meta-analysis version 3. Biostat.
  19. Brown, A. V., Plonsky, L., & Teimouri, Y. (2018). The use of course grades as metrics in L2 research: A systematic review. Foreign Language Annals, 51(4), 763-778. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12370
  20. Chao, C. N. G., McInerney, D. M., & Bai, B. (2019). Self-efficacy and self-concept as predictors of language learning achievements in an Asian bi-lingual context. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 28(2), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-018-0420-3
  21. Cheng, Y. S., Horwitz, E. K., & Schallert, D. L. (1999). Language anxiety: Differentiating writing and speaking components. Language Learning, 49(3), 417-446. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00095
  22. Chuang, H., Weng, C., & Chen, C. (2018). Which students benefit most from a flipped classroom approach to language learning? British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(1), 56-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12530
  23. Cooper, H. (2016). Research synthesis and meta-analysis (5th ed.). Sage.
  24. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). The contribution of flow to positive psychology. In J. E. Gillham (Ed.), The science of optimism and hope: Research essays in honor of Martin E. P. Seligman (pp. 387-395). Templeton Foundation Press.
  25. Dewaele, J. M., & Alfawzan, M. (2018). Does the effect of enjoyment outweigh that of anxiety in foreign language performance? Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 21-45. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.1.2
  26. Dewaele, J. M., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2014). The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 237-274. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.2.5
  27. Doordinejad, F. G., & Afshar, H. (2014). On the relationship between self-efficacy and English achievement among Iranian third grade high school students. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 6(4), 461-470.
  28. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  29. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. Motivation, language identity and the L2 self, 36(3), 9-11. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-003
  30. Dörnyei, Z. (2020). Innovations and challenges in language learning motivation. Routledge.
  31. Driver, M. (2021). Emotion-laden texts and words: The influence of emotion on vocabulary learning for heritage and foreign language learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263121000851
  32. Duckworth, A. L. (2013). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance. Scribner.
  33. Erkan, D. Y., & Saban, A. İ. (2011). Writing performance relative to writing apprehension, self-efficacy in writing, and attitudes towards writing: A correlational study in Turkish tertiary-level EFL. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 13(1), 164-192.
  34. Fukuda, A. (2018). The Japanese EFL learners’ self-regulated language learning and proficiency. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 65-87. https://doi.org/10.25256/PAAL.22.1.4
  35. Gahunga, O. (2009). Are self-efficacy, language learning strategies, and foreign language ability interrelated? The Buckingham Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2, 47-60.
  36. Ghonsooly, B., & Elahi, M. (2010). Learners’ self-efficacy in reading and its relation to foreign language reading anxiety and reading achievement. Amirkabir, 53(217), 45-67.
  37. Golparvar, S. E., & Khafi, A. (2021). The role of L2 writing self-efficacy in integrated writing strategy use and performance. Assessing Writing, 47, 100504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2020.100504
  38. Hetthong, R., & Teo, A. (2013). Does writing self-efficacy correlate with and predict writing performance? International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 2(1), 157-167. https://doi.org/10.7575/ijalel.v.2n.1p.157
  39. Ghonsooly, B., & Elahi, M. (2010). Learners’ self-efficacy in reading and its relation to foreign language reading anxiety and reading achievement. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 53(217), 45-67.
  40. Hiver, P. (2013). The interplay of possible language teacher selves in professional development choices. Language Teaching Research, 17(2), 210-227. https:// doi.org/10.1177%2F1362168813475944
  41. Hsieh, P. (2008). “Why are college foreign language students’ self-efficacy, attitude, and motivation so different?” International Education, 38(1), 76-94.
  42. Hsieh, P. P., & Kang, H. (2010). Attribution and self-efficacy and their interrelationship in the Korean EFL context. Language Learning, 60(3), 606-627. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00570.x
  43. Hsieh, P. P., & Schallert, D. L. (2008). Implications from self-efficacy and attribution theories for an understanding of undergraduates’ motivation in a foreign language course. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 513-532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.01.003
  44. Huang, C. (2016). Achievement goals and self-efficacy: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 19, 119-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2016.07.002
  45. Jee, M. J. (2015). Language learners’ strategy use and self-efficacy: Korean heritage learners versus non-heritage learners. Language Research, 51(1), 167-195.
  46. Jin, Y., & Zhang, L. J. (2018). The dimensions of foreign language classroom enjoyment and their effect on foreign language achievement. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1526253
  47. Karademas, E. C. (2006). Self-efficacy, social support and well-being: The mediating role of optimism. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1281-1290.
  48. Karbakhsh, R., & Safa, M. A. (2020). Basic psychological needs satisfaction, goal orientation, willingness to communicate, self-efficacy, and learning strategy use as predictors of second language achievement: A structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 49(5), 803-822. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-020-09714-7
  49. Khodadad, M., & Kaur, J. (2016). Causal relationships between integrative motivation, self-efficacy, strategy use and English language achievement. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 22(3), 111-125.
  50. Kitikanan, P., & Sasimonton, P. (2017). The relationship between English self-efficacy and English learning achievement of L2 Thai learners. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 10(1), 149-164.
  51. Lake, J. (2013). Positive L2 self: Linking positive psychology with L2 motivation. Language Learning Motivation in Japan, 71, 225-244. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090518-015
  52. Larson-Hall, J., & Plonsky, L. (2015). Reporting and interpreting quantitative research findings: What gets reported and recommendations for the field. Language Learning, 65(S1), 127-159. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12115
  53. Le-Thi, D., Dörnyei, Z., & Pellicer-Sánchez, A. (2020). Increasing the effectiveness of teaching L2 formulaic sequences through motivational strategies and mental imagery: A classroom experiment. Language Teaching Re-search. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820913125
  54. Lei, H., & Cui, Y. (2016). Effects of academic emotions on achievement among mainland Chinese students: A meta-analysis. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 44(9), 1541-1553. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2016.44.9.1541
  55. Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psycho-logy, 33(4), 486-512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.08.001
  56. Ma, L., Du, X., Hau, K., & Liu, J. (2018). The association between teacher-student relationship and academic achievement in Chinese EFL context: A se-rial multiple mediation model. Educational Psychology, 38(5), 687-707. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2017.1412400
  57. MacIntyre, P. D., Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (Eds.). (2016). Positive psychology in SLA. Multilingual Matters.
  58. MacIntyre, P. D., & Mercer, S. (2014). Introducing positive psychology to SLA. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 153-172. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.2.2
  59. McCollum, D. L. (2003). Investigating non-cognitive components of foreign language achievement. Applied Language Learning, 13(1), 19-32.
  60. Marques, S. C., Gallagher, M. W., & Lopez, S. J. (2017). Hope-and academic-related outcomes: A meta-analysis. School Mental Health, 9(3), 250-262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-017-9212-9
  61. Marsden, E., & Plonsky, L. (2018). Data, open science, and methodological re-form in second language acquisition research. In A. Gudmestad & A. Ed-monds (Eds.), Critical reflections on data in second language acquisition (pp. 219-228). John Benjamins.
  62. Meera, K. P., & Jumana, M. K. (2015). Self-efficacy and academic performance in English. Research in Pedagogy, 5(2), 25-30. https://doi.org/10.17810/2015.13
  63. Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2007). Self-efficacy of college intermediate French students: Relation to achievement and motivation. Language Learning, 57(3), 417-442. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00421.x
  64. Mizumoto, A. (2013). Effects of self-regulated vocabulary learning process on self-efficacy. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 253-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2013.836206
  65. Möller, J., Streblow, L., & Pohlmann, B. (2009). Achievement and self-concept of students with learning disabilities. Social Psychology of Education, 12(1), 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-008-9065-z
  66. Möller, J., Zitzmann, S., Helm, F., Machts, N., & Wolff, F. (2020). A meta-analysis of relations between achievement and self-concept. Review of Educational Research, 90(3), 376-419. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654320919354
  67. Multon, K. D; Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30-38. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.38.1.30
  68. Murad Sani, A., & Zain, Z. (2011). Relating adolescents’ second language reading attitudes, self efficacy for reading, and reading ability in a non-supportive ESL setting. The Reading Matrix, 11(3), 243-254.
  69. Mustapha, N. H., Mustapha, N. F., Daud, N., & Abd Wahab, M. (2013). Arabic language efficacy questionnaire (ALEQ): Assessing self-efficacy and achievement. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 13(1), 155-167.
  70. Namaziandost, E., & Çakmak, F. (2020). An account of EFL learners’ self-efficacy and gender in the Flipped Classroom Model. Education and Information Technologies, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10167-7
  71. Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L. (2006). The value and practice of research synthesis for language learning and teaching. In J. M. Norris & L. Ortega (Eds.), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching (pp. 3-50). John Benjamins.
  72. Oliver, R., Purdie, N., & Rochecouste, J. (2005). Affective aspects of language learning: Beliefs, attitudes, efficacy. Babel, 40(2), 29-36.
  73. Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. Advances in motivation and achievement, 10(149), 1-49.
  74. Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. H. (2005). Self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs: Jointly contributing to the quality of human life. In H. Marsh, R. Craven, & D. McInerney (Eds.), International advances in self-research (Vol. 2, pp. 95-121). Information Age.
  75. Pan, J. Y., & Chan, C. L. W. (2007). Resilience: A new research area in positive psychology. Psychologia, 50(3), 164-176. https://doi.org/10.2117/psysoc.2007.164
  76. Papi, M., Bondarenko, A. V., Mansouri, S., Feng, L., & Jiang, C. (2019). Rethinking L2 motivation research: The 2×2 model of L2 self-guides. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 337-361. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263118000153
  77. Phakiti, A., Hirsh, D., & Woodrow, L. (2013). It’s not only English: Effects of other individual factors on English language learning and academic learning of ESL international students in Australia. Journal of Research in International Education, 12(3), 239-258. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240913513520
  78. Pekrun, R., Götz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. (2002). Positive emotions in education. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and chal-lenges (pp. 149-173). Oxford University Press.
  79. Petscher, Y. (2010). A meta‐analysis of the relationship between student attitudes towards reading and achievement in reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(4), 335-355. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2009.01418.x
  80. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.
  81. Plonsky, L. (2013). Study quality in SLA: An assessment of designs, analyses, and reporting practices in quantitative L2 research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 655-687. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263113000399
  82. Plonsky, L. (2017). Quantitative research methods in instructed SLA. In S. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 505-521). Routledge.
  83. Plonsky, L., & Derrick, D. J. (2016). A meta‐analysis of reliability coefficients in second language research. Modern Language Journal, 100(2), 538-553. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12335
  84. Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2012). How to do a meta-analysis. In A. Mackey & S. M. Gass (Eds.), Research methods in second language acquisition: A practical guide (pp. 275-295). Blackwell.
  85. Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878-912.
  86. Oswald, F. L., & Plonsky, L. (2010). Meta-analysis in second language research: Choices and challenges. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 85-110. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190510000115
  87. Rahemi, J. (2007). Self efficacy in English and Iranian senior high school students majoring in humanities. Novitas-Royal, 1(2), 98-111.
  88. Raoofi, S., & Maroofi, Y. (2017). Relationships among motivation (self-efficacy and task value), strategy use and performance in L2 writing. Southern Af-rican Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 35(3), 299-310. https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2017.1391706
  89. Sahril, & Weda, S. (2018). The relationship of self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and writing performance of Indonesian EFL students in higher education. Journal of English as an International Language, 13, 47-63.
  90. Sedighi, F., Alavi, S., & Samani, S. (2004). Developing a foreign language learning self-efficacy scale for Iranian students. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities of Shiraz University, 21(1 (40)), 94-101.
  91. Shah, P. M., Mahmud, W. H., Din, R., Yusof, A., & Pardi, K. M. (2011). Self-efficacy in the writing of Malaysian ESL learners. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(11), 8-11.
  92. Shang, H. F. (2010). Reading strategy use, self-efficacy and EFL reading comprehension. Asian EFL Journal, 12(2), 18-42.
  93. Seligman, M. P. (1998). Positive psychology network concept paper. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/yzmwm7vz
  94. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5
  95. Shin, M. H. (2018). Effects of project-based learning on students’ motivation and self-efficacy. English Teaching, 73(1), 95-114.
  96. Song, J. (2016). Emotions and language teacher identity: Conflicts, vulnerability, and transformation. TESOL Quarterly, 50(3), 631-654. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.312
  97. Teimouri, Y., Goetze, J., & Plonsky, L. (2019). Second language anxiety and achievement: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 363-387. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263118000311
  98. Teimouri, Y., Plonsky, L., & Tabandeh, F. (2020). L2 grit: Passion and perseverance for second-language learning. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820921895
  99. Templin, S. A. (1999). The relationship between self-efficacy and language learners’ grades. JALT Journal, 21(1), 112-124.
  100. Terasawa, T. (2017). Has socioeconomic development reduced the English di-vide? A statistical analysis of access to English skills in Japan. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(8), 671-685. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2016.1221412
  101. Ushioda, E. (2014). Context and complex dynamic systems theory. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 47-54). Multilingual Matters.
  102. Ushioda, E., & Dörnyei, Z. (2011). Teaching and researching: Motivation. Pear-son Education.
  103. Wang, C. (2004). Self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs of children learning English as a second language [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University]. No. osu1091546670. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/
  104. Wang, C., Hu, J., Zhang, G., Chang, Y., & Xu, Y. (2012). Chinese college students’ self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs in learning English as a foreign language. Journal of Research in Education, 22(2), 103-135.
  105. Wang, C., Kim, D.-H., Bong, M., & Ahn, H. S. (2013). Examining measurement properties of an English self-efficacy scale for English language learners in Korea. International Journal of Educational Research, 59, 24-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2013.02.004
  106. Wang, C., & Sun, T. (2020). Relationship between self-efficacy and language proficiency: A meta-analysis. System, 95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102366
  107. Weda, S., Samad, I. A., Patak, A. A., & Fitriani, S. S. (2018). The effects of self-efficacy belief, motivation, and learning strategies on students’ academic performance in English in higher education. Asian EFL Journal, 20(9), 140-168.
  108. Woodrow, L. (2011). College English writing affect: Self-efficacy and anxiety. System, 39(4), 510-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.10.017
  109. Wu, X., Lowyck, J., Sercu, L., & Elen, J. (2012). Self-efficacy, task complexity and task performance: Exploring interactions in two versions of vocabulary learning tasks. Learning Environments Research, 15(1), 17-35.
  110. Wu, X., Lowyck, J., Sercu, L., & Elen, J. (2013). Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1), 160-181. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02061.x
  111. Wyatt, M. (2018). Language teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs: An introduction. In S. Mercer & A. Kostoulas (Eds.), Language teacher psychology (pp. 122-140). Multilingual Matters.
  112. Zhang, L., & Tsung, L. (2021). Learning Chinese as a second language in China: Positive emotions and enjoyment. System, 96, 102410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102410