Learner variables in the development of intercultural competence: A synthesis of home and study abroad research

Main Article Content

Zia Tajeddin
Neda Khanlarzadeh
Hessameddin Ghanbar


To provide insights into a wide array of individual learner variables implicated in intercultural education in home and study abroad contexts, this study systematically reviewed the effects of such variables on the development of intercultural competence. The corpus consisted of 56 journal articles published over the past two decades (2000-2020). The purpose of this study was to explore: (a) learner variables that were described in research on intercultural competence, including, inter alia, their age, gender, first language (L1) background, proficiency level, and attitudinal orientations; (b) settings in which learners’ intercultural development was studied, including both home contexts and study abroad contexts; and (c) effects of learner variables on the development of their intercultural competence. The results of this synthesis indicate that a growing number of studies have started to document intercultural instruction in both home and study abroad contexts. They show how learner variables were considered in conducting these studies and how variation in these variables impacted the effectiveness of instruction that targeted intercultural competence. The findings can considerably broaden our understanding of both opportunities and constraints in intercultural education in terms of learner variables and in particular variables that make the most contribution to intercultural development in home and study abroad contexts.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tajeddin, Z., Khanlarzadeh, N., & Ghanbar, H. (2022). Learner variables in the development of intercultural competence: A synthesis of home and study abroad research. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 12(2), 261-301. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.2.5
Author Biographies

Zia Tajeddin, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Zia Tajeddin is Professor of Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language Teaching, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. His research interests center on L2 pragmatics, intercultural education, and teacher education in EIL/ELF.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0430-6408

Contact details: Department of English Language Teaching, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale-Ahmad Highway, Tehran, Iran (tajeddinz@ modares.ac.ir; zia_tajeddin@yahoo.com)

Neda Khanlarzadeh, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

Neda Khanlarzadeh is a PhD candidate in applied linguistics at Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran. Her areas of interest are discourse studies, second language pragmatics, and (intercultural) teacher education.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8369-9467

Contact details: Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Allameh Tabataba’i University, South Allameh Street, Saadatabad, Tehran, Iran (nedakhanlarzadeh@yahoo.ca)

Hessameddin Ghanbar, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Hessameddin Ghanbar is Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics at Islamic Azad University, Fereshtegaan International Branch, Tehran, Iran. His areas of interest include meta-analysis and research synthesis in L2 research.

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8895-3791

Contact details: Islamic Azad University, Fereshtegaan International Branch, Iran Zamin, Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran (hessam.ghanbar@gmail.com)


  1. Abe, H., & Wiseman, R. L. (1983). A cross-cultural confirmation of the dimensions of intercultural effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7(1), 53-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(83)90005-6
  2. Acevedo, M. V. (2019). Young children playing their way into intercultural understanding. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 19(3), 375-398. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468798417727134
  3. Acheson, K., Nelson, M., & Luna, K. (2015). Measuring the impact of instruction in intercultural communication on secondary Spanish learners’ attitudes and motivation. Foreign Language Annals, 48(2), 203-217. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12132
  4. Alhamami, M. (2018). Beliefs about and intention to learn a foreign language in face-to-face and online settings. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(1-2), 90-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1387154
  5. Allen, H. W. (2013). Self-regulatory strategies of foreign language learners: From the classroom to study abroad and beyond. In C. Kinginger (Ed.), Social and cultural aspects of language learning in study abroad (pp. 47-73). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.37.03wil
  6. Alptekin, C. (1993). Target-language culture in EFL materials. ELT Journal, 47(2), 136-143. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/47.2.136
  7. Alptekin, C. (2002). Towards intercultural communicative competence in ELT. ELT Journal, 56(1), 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.1.57
  8. Alred, G., & Byram, M. (2002). Becoming an intercultural mediator: A longitudinal study of residence abroad. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(5), 339-352. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630208666473
  9. Álvarez Valencia, J. A., & Fernández Benavides, A. (2019). Using social networking sites for language learning to develop intercultural competence in language education programs. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 12(1), 23-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2018.1503318
  10. Amiryousefi, M. (2018). Willingness to communicate, interest, motives to communicate with the instructor, and L2 speaking: A focus on the role of age and gender. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 12(3), 221-234. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2016.1170838
  11. Aragão, R. (2011). Beliefs and emotions in foreign language learning. System, 39 (3), 302-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.07.003
  12. Artieda, G., Roquet, H., & Nicolás-Conesa, F. (2020). The impact of age and exposure on EFL achievement in two learning contexts: Formal instruction and formal instruction + content and language integrated learning (CLIL). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(4), 449-472. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1373059
  13. Avgousti, M. I. (2018). Intercultural communicative competence and online exchanges: A systematic review. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(8), 819-853. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1455713
  14. Bagwe, T. K., & Haskollar, E. (2020). Variables impacting intercultural competence: A systematic literature review. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 49(4), 346-371. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2020.1771751
  15. Baker, W. (2015). Research into practice: Cultural and intercultural awareness. Language Teaching, 48(1), 130-141. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0261444814000287
  16. Baker, W., & Fang, F. (2021): “So maybe I’m a global citizen:” Developing inter-cultural citizenship in English medium education. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 34(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2020.1748045
  17. Baker‐Smemoe, W., Dewey, D. P., Bown, J., & Martinsen, R. A. (2014). Variables affecting L2 gains during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 47(3), 464-486. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12093
  18. Bataller, R. (2010). Making a request for a service in Spanish: Pragmatic development in the study abroad setting. Foreign Language Annals, 43(1), 160-175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01065.x
  19. Bećirović, S. (2017). The relationship between gender, motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 6(2), 210-220. https://doi.org/10.13187/ejced.2017.2.210
  20. Bećirović, S., Brdarević Čeljo, A., & Zavrl, I. (2019). Research into intercultural effectiveness in a multicultural educational milieu in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 32(1), 1336-1351. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677x.2019.1629329
  21. Bennett, J. M. (2008). On becoming a global soul. In V. Savicki (Ed.), Developing intercultural competence and transformation: Theory, research and application in international education (pp. 13-31). Stylus.
  22. Bennett, J. M., Bennett, M. J., & Allen, W. (1999). Developing intercultural competence in the language classroom. In R. M. Paige, D. L. Lange, & Y. A. Yershova (Eds.), Culture as the core: Integrating culture into the language curriculum (pp. 13-46). CARLA, University of Minnesota.
  23. Berg, M. V. (2009). Intervening in student learning abroad: A research‐based inquiry. Intercultural Education, 20(1), 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980903370821
  24. Biell, G., & Doff, S. (2014). It takes more than two for this tango: Moving be-yond the self/other-binary in teaching about culture in the global EFL-classroom. Zeitschrift für interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht, 19(1), 77-96.
  25. Bloom, M., & Miranda, A. (2015). Intercultural sensitivity through short-term study abroad. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(4), 567-580. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2015.1056795
  26. Bradford, L., Allen, M., & Beisser, K. R. (1998). Meta-analysis of intercultural communication competence research. World Communication, 29(1), 28-51.
  27. Brunton, G., Stransfield, C., & Thomas, J. (2012). Finding relevant studies. In D. Gough, S. Oliver & J. Thomas (Eds.), An introduction to systematic re-views (pp. 107-134). SAGE.
  28. Busse, V., & Krause, U. M. (2015). Addressing cultural diversity: Effects of a problem-based intercultural learning unit. Learning Environments Re-search, 18(3), 425-452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-015-9193-2
  29. Busse, V., & Krause, U. M. (2016). Instructional methods and languages in class: A comparison of two teaching approaches and two teaching languages in the field of intercultural learning. Learning and Instruction, 42, 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.01.006
  30. Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Multilingual Matters.
  31. Byram, M. (2008). From foreign language education to education for intercultural citizenship. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847690807
  32. Byram, M. (2019). Intercultural language teaching in an era of internationalization. In P. Romanowski & E. Bandura (Eds.), Intercultural foreign language teaching and learning in higher education contexts (pp. 99-120). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-8128-4.ch005
  33. Byram, M., & Doyé, P. (2005). Intercultural competence and foreign language learning in the primary school. In P. Driscoll & D. Frost (Eds.), Teaching modern languages in the primary school (pp. 155-168). Routledge.
  34. Byram, M., & Feng, A. (2004). Culture and language learning: Teaching, re-search and scholarship. Language Teaching, 37(3), 149-168. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0261444804002289
  35. Byram, M., Holmes, P., & Savvides, N. (2013). Intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education: Questions of theory, practice and research. The Language Learning Journal, 41(3), 251-253. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/09571736.2013.836343
  36. Byram, M., & Wagner, M. (2018). Making a difference: Language teaching for intercultural and international dialogue. Foreign Language Annals, 51(1), 140-151. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12319
  37. Byram, M., & Zarate, G. (1994). Definitions, objectives, and assessment of socio-cultural competence. Council of Europe.
  38. Calafato, R., & Tang, F. (2019). Multilingualism and gender in the UAE: A look at the motivational selves of Emirati teenagers. System, 84, 133-144. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.06.006
  39. Chen, J. J., & Yang, S. C. (2016). Promoting cross-cultural understanding and language use in research-oriented Internet-mediated intercultural ex-change. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(2), 262-288. https://doi. org/10.1080/09588221.2014.937441
  40. Chocce, J., Johnson, D. A., & Yossatorn, Y. (2015). Predictive factors of fresh-men’s intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 5(10), 778-782. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijiet.2015.v5.610
  41. Clark, A., & Trafford, J. (1995). Boys into modern languages: An investigation of the discrepancy in attitudes and performance between boys and girls in modern languages. Gender and Education, 7(3), 315-325. https://doi.org/10. 1080/09540259550039022
  42. Collentine, J., & Freed, B. (2004). Learning context and its effects on second language acquisition: Introduction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 153-171. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0272263104262015
  43. Corbett, J. (2003). An intercultural approach to English language teaching. Multilingual Matters.
  44. Council of Europe. (2008). White paper on intercultural dialogue: Living together as equals in dignity CM 2008 30. Council of Europe.
  45. Csizér, K. (2017). Motivation in the L2 classroom. In S. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 418-432). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-23
  46. Cushner, K. (2015). Development and assessment of intercultural competence. In M. Hayden, J. Levy, & J. Thompson (Eds.) The Sage handbook of re-search in international education (2nd ed., pp. 2000-2016). SAGE.
  47. Cubillos, J., & Ilvento, T. (2018). Intercultural contact in short-term study abroad programs. Hispania, 101(2), 249-266. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpn.2018.0117
  48. Czerwionka, L., Artamonova, T., & Barbosa, M. (2015). Intercultural knowledge development: Evidence from student interviews during short-term study abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 49, 80-99. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.06.01
  49. Davies, L., Evans, M., & Reid, A. (2005). Globalising citizenship education? A critique of “global education” and “citizenship education.” British Journal of Educational Studies, 53(1), 66-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8527.2005.00284.x
  50. Deardorff, D. K. (2004). The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). https://repository. lib.ncsu.edu/bitstream/handle/1840.16/5733/etd.pdf?sequence=1&is
  51. Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306287002
  52. Demircioğlu, S., & Çakir, C. (2016). Intercultural competence of students in International Baccalaureate world schools in Turkey and Abroad. International Education Studies, 9(9), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v9n9p1
  53. Dörnyei. Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisit-ed. Routledge.
  54. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Multilingual Matters.
  55. East, M. (2012). Addressing the intercultural via task-based language teaching: Possibility or problem? Language and Intercultural Communication, 12(1), 56-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2011.626861
  56. Ellis, R. (2015). Understanding second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  57. Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2008). Blogging: Fostering intercultural competence development in foreign language and study abroad contexts. Foreign Language Annals, 41(3), 454-477. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2008.tb03307.x
  58. Engle, L., & Engle, J. (2004). Assessing language acquisition and intercultural sensitivity development in relation to study abroad program design. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10(1), 219-236. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v10i1.142
  59. Ennis, M. J., & Riley, C. E. (Eds.). (2018). Practices in intercultural language teaching and learning. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  60. Escudero, M. D. P. (2013). Teaching intercultural awareness in the English as a foreign language classroom: A case study using critical reading. Intercultural Education, 24(3), 251-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2013.793037
  61. Fabregas, J. M. G., Kelsey, K., & Robinson, S. (2012). Predicting intercultural sensitivity using demographic variables among college of agriculture undergraduate students. US-China Education Review, 8, 710-719. https://doi.org/10.5191/jiaee.2011.18103
  62. Furstenberg, G. (2010). A dynamic, web-based methodology for developing intercultural understanding. In P. Hinds, A. Søderberg, & R. Vatrapu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on intercultural collaboration (pp. 49-58). Association for Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/1841853.1841861
  63. Ghasemi, A. A., Ahmadian, M., Yazdani, H., & Amerian, M. (2020). Towards a model of intercultural communicative competence in Iranian EFL con-text: Testing the role of international posture, ideal L2 self, L2 self-confidence, and metacognitive strategies. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 49(1), 41-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2019.1705877
  64. Godwin-Jones, R. (2013). Integrating intercultural competence into language learning through technology. Language Learning & Technology, 17(2), 1-11.
  65. Godwin-Jones, R. (2019). Telecollaboration as an approach to developing intercultural communication competence. Language Learning & Technology, 23(3), 8-28.
  66. Goldstein, S. B., & Kim, R. I. (2006). Predictors of US college students’ participation in study abroad programs: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(4), 507-521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.10.001
  67. Gough, D., Oliver, S., & Thomas, J. (2013). Learning from research: Systematic reviews for informing policy decisions: A quick guide. A paper for the alliance for useful evidence. Nesta.
  68. Gu, X. (2015). Assessment of intercultural communicative competence in FL education: A survey on EFL teachers’ perception and practice in China. Language and Intercultural Communication, 16(2), 254-273. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2015.1083575
  69. Gudykunst, W. B., & Hammer, M. R. (1984). Dimensions of intercultural effectiveness: Culture specific or culture general? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(84)90003-8
  70. Guilherme, M. (2000). Intercultural competence. In M. Byram (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of language teaching and learning (pp. 298-300). Routledge.
  71. Heinzmann, S., Künzle, R., Schallhart, N., & Müller, M. (2015). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence: Results from a longitudinal quasi-experimental study. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 26(1), 187-208. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v26i1.366
  72. Helm, F. (2009). Language and culture in an online context: What can learner diaries tell us about intercultural competence? Language and Intercultural Communication, 9(2), 91-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470802140260
  73. Hismanoglu, M. (2011). An investigation of ELT students’ intercultural communicative competence in relation to linguistic proficiency, overseas experience and formal instruction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 805-817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.09.001
  74. Ho, S. T. K. (2009). Addressing culture in EFL classrooms: The challenge of shifting from a traditional to an intercultural stance. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 63-76.
  75. Holliday, A. (2011). Intercultural communication and ideology. SAGE. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446269107
  76. Holm, K., Nokelainen, P., & Tirri, K. (2009). Relationship of gender and academic achievement to Finnish students’ intercultural sensitivity. High Ability Studies, 20(2), 187-200, https://doi.org/10.1080/13598130903358543
  77. Holmes, P. (2006). Problematising intercultural communication competence in the pluricultural classroom: Chinese students in a New Zealand university. Language and Intercultural Communication, 6(1), 18-34. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/14708470608668906
  78. Holmes, P., Bavieri, L., Ganassin, S., & Murphy, J. (2016). Interculturality and the study abroad experience: Students’ learning from the IEREST materials. Language and Intercultural Communication, 16(3), 452-469. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2016.1168054
  79. Houghton, S. A. (2014). Exploring manifestations of curiosity in study abroad as part of intercultural communicative competence. System, 42, 368-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.024
  80. Howard-Hamilton, M. F., Richardson, B. J., & Shuford, B. (1998). Promoting multicultural education: A holistic approach. College Student Affairs Journal, 18(1), 5-17.
  81. Hughes, G. (1986). An argument for cultural analysis in the second language classroom. In M. Valdes (Ed.), Culture bound: Bridging the cultural gap in language teaching (pp. 162-169). Cambridge University Press.
  82. Isabelli-García, C. L., & Isabelli, C. A. (2020). Researching second language acquisi-tion in the study abroad learning environment: An introduction for student researchers. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25157-4
  83. Ishii, E. (2009). The effects of task-based intercultural instruction on the inter-cultural competence of Japanese secondary EFL learners. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 19, 159-181.
  84. Jackson, J. (2011). Host language proficiency, intercultural sensitivity, and study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21(1), 167-188. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v21i1.308
  85. Jackson, J. (2013). The transformation of “a frog in the well:” A path to a more intercultural, global mindset. In C. Kinginger (Ed.), Social and cultural aspects of language learning in study abroad (pp. 179-204). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.37.08jac
  86. Jackson, J. (2017). Intervening in the intercultural learning of L2 study abroad students: From research to practice. Language Teaching, 51(3), 365-382. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0261444816000392
  87. Ke, S., & Chan, S. D. (2017). Strategy use in L2 Chinese reading: The effect of L1 background and L2 proficiency. System, 66, 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.005
  88. Kim, M.-S., & Ebesu Hubbard, A. S. (2007). Intercultural Communication in the global village: How to understand “The other.” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 36(3), 223-235. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475750701737165
  89. Kim, R. I., & Goldstein, S. B. (2005). Intercultural attitudes predict favorable study abroad expectations of US college students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(3), 265-278. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315305277684
  90. Kinginger, C. (2009). Language learning and study abroad: A critical reading of re-search. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230240766_1
  91. Kinginger, C. (2013). Social and cultural aspects of language learning in study abroad. John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.37.01kin
  92. Koester, J., & Olebe, M. (1988). The behavioral assessment scale for intercultural communication effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12(3), 233-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(88)90017-x
  93. Kohler, M. (2020). Developing intercultural language learning. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59113-7_3
  94. Kormos, J., & Csizér, K. (2008). Age‐related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves, and motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 58(2), 327-355. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14 67-9922.2008.00443.x
  95. Kramsch, C. (2011). Theorizing translingual/transcultural competence. In G. S. Levine, A. Phipps, & C. Blyth (Eds.), Critical and intercultural theory and language pedagogy (pp. 15-31). Cengage Learning. https://doi.org/10.4324/ 9781315708232-7
  96. Kramsch, C., & Nolden, T. (1994). Redefining literacy in a foreign language. Die Unterrichtspraxis, 27(1), 28-35. https://doi.org/10.2307/3531473
  97. Kubota, R. (1998). Ideologies of English in Japan. World Englishes, 17(3), 295-306. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971x.00105
  98. Kusumaningputri, R., & Widodo, H. P. (2018). Promoting Indonesian university students’ critical intercultural awareness in tertiary EAL classrooms: The use of digital photograph-mediated intercultural tasks. System, 72, 49-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.10.003
  99. Lafford, B. (2006). The effects of study abroad vs. classroom contexts on Spanish SLA: Old assumptions, new insights and future research directions. In C. Klee & T. Face (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 7th conference on the acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as first and second languages (pp. 1-25). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
  100. Lázár, I. (2015). EFL learners’ intercultural competence development in an international web collaboration project. The Language Learning Journal, 43(2), 208-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2013.869941
  101. Lee, J. H. (2018). The effects of short-term study abroad on L2 anxiety, international posture, and L2 willingness to communicate. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 39(8), 703-714. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2018.1435666
  102. Lee, L. (2011). Blogging: Promoting learner autonomy and intercultural competence through study abroad. Language Learning & Technology, 15(3), 87-109. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2012.01164.x
  103. Lee, L. (2012). Engaging study abroad students in intercultural learning through blogging and ethnographic interviews. Foreign Language Annals, 45(1), 7-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2012.01164.x
  104. Lee, L., & Markey, A. (2014). A study of learners’ perceptions of online inter-cultural exchange through Web 2.0 technologies. ReCALL, 26(3), 281-297. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0958344014000111
  105. Lee, S., & Pulido, D. (2017). The impact of topic interest, L2 proficiency, and gender on EFL incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Language Teaching Research, 21(1), 118-135. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816637381
  106. Lenkaitis, C. A., Calo, S., & Venegas Escobar, S. (2019). Exploring the intersection of language and culture via telecollaboration: Utilizing videoconferencing for intercultural competence development. International Multilingual Research Journal, 13(2), 102-115. https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2019.1570772
  107. Lewis, T., & O’Dowd, R. (2016). Online intercultural exchange and foreign language learning: A systematic review. In R. O’Dowd & T. Lewis (Eds.), Online intercultural exchange: Policy, pedagogy, practice (pp. 21-68). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315678931
  108. Liaw, M. L. (2006). E-learning and the development of intercultural competence. Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 49-64.
  109. Liddicoat, A., & Scarino, A. (2010). Eliciting the intercultural in foreign language education at school. In L. Sercu & A. Paran (Eds.), Testing the untestable in language and education. (pp. 52- 73). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692672-006
  110. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. SAGE.
  111. MacIntyre, P. D., Burns, C., & Jessome, A. (2011). Ambivalence about communicating in a second language: A qualitative study of French immersion student’s willingness to communicate. Modern Language Journal, 95(1), 81-96. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01141.x
  112. Magnan, S., & Back, M. (2007). Social interaction and linguistic gain during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 40, 43-61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2007.tb02853.x
  113. Mahon, J. (2006). Under the visible cloak? Teacher understanding of cultural difference. Intercultural Education, 17, 391-405. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980600971426
  114. Marinova‐Todd, S. H., Marshall, D. B., & Snow, C. E. (2000). Three misconceptions about age and L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 34(1), 9-34. https://doi.org/ 10.2307/3588095
  115. Martin, J. N., & Hammer, M. R. (1989). Behavioral categories of intercultural communication competence: Everyday communicators’ perceptions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13(3), 303-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(89)90015-1
  116. Martinsen, R. (2011). Predicting changes in cultural sensitivity among students of Spanish during short-term study abroad. Hispania, 94, 121-141. https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01095.x
  117. McCloskey, E. (2012). Global teachers: A conceptual model for building teachers’ intercultural competence online. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 19(38), 41-49. https://doi.org/10.3916/c38-2012-02-04
  118. McKay, S. L. (2018). English as an international Language: What it is and what it means for pedagogy. RELC Journal, 49(1), 9-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217738817
  119. McKay, S. L. & Bokhorst-Heng, W. D. (2008). International English in its sociolinguistic contexts. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315092553
  120. Medina-López-Portillo, A. (2004). Intercultural learning assessment: The link between program duration and the development of intercultural sensitivity. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10(1), 179-200. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v10i1.141
  121. Mirzaei, A., & Forouzandeh, F. (2013). Relationship between intercultural communicative competence and L2-learning motivation of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 42(3), 300-318. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2013.816867
  122. Mitchell, R., & Tyne, H. (2021). Language, mobility and study abroad in the contemporary European context. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003087953
  123. Moloney, A. R. (2007). Intercultural competence in young language learners: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
  124. Morales, A. (2017). Intercultural sensitivity, gender, and nationality of third culture kids attending an international high school. Journal of International Education Research, 13(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.19030/jier.v13i1.9969
  125. Mori, S., & Gobel, P. (2006). Motivation and gender in the Japanese EFL classroom. System, 34(2), 194-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.11.002
  126. Moskovsky, C., Assulaimani, T., Racheva, S., & Harkins, J. (2016). The L2 motivational self system and L2 achievement: A study of Saudi EFL learners. Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 641-654. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12340
  127. Namaziandost, E., & Çakmak, F. (2020). An account of EFL learners’ self-efficacy and gender in the Flipped Classroom Model. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 4041-4055. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10167-7
  128. National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. (2006). Standards for foreign language learning in the 21st century (3rd ed.). National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project.
  129. Neff, P., & Apple, M. (2020). Short-term and long-term study abroad: The impact on language learners’ intercultural communication, L2 confidence, and sense of L2 self. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1847125
  130. Norris, M., & Ortega, L. (Eds.). (2010). Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching. John Benjamins.
  131. Norton, B., & De Costa, P. I. (2018). Research tasks on identity in language learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 51(1), 90-112.
  132. Norton, B., & Pavlenko, A. (2004). Addressing gender in the ESL/EFL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 38(3), 504-514. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588351
  133. O’Dowd, R. (2000). Intercultural learning via videoconferencing: A pilot exchange project. ReCALL, 12(1), 49-61. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0958344000000616
  134. O’Dowd, R. (2003). Understanding the „other side:” Intercultural learning in a Spanish-English e-mail exchange. Language Learning & Technology, 7(2), 118-144.
  135. O’Dowd, R. (2012). Intercultural communicative competence through telecollaboration. In J. Hackson (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication (pp. 342-358). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203805640.ch21
  136. O’Dowd, R. & Dooly, M. (2020). Intercultural communicative competence through telecollaboration and virtual exchange. In J. Jackson (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication (2nd ed., pp. 361-375). Routledge.
  137. Oxford, R. L. (2016). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context. Routledge.
  138. Oz, H. (2015). Ideal L2 self as a predictor of intercultural communicative competence. The Anthropologist, 19(1), 41-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2015.11891637
  139. Özdemir, E. (2017). Promoting EFL learners’ intercultural communication effectiveness: A focus on Facebook. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(6), 510-528. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1325907
  140. Palmer, J. (2013). Intercultural competence and language variety on study abroad programs: L2 learners of Arabic. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 22(1), 58-83. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v22i1.319
  141. Pan, S. (2007). Intercultural communication apprehension, ethnocentrism and their relationship with gender: A cross-cultural comparison between the U.S. and China. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association Conference, New Orleans, LA.
  142. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students (Vol. 2): A third decade of research. Jossey-Bass.
  143. Patricia, M. Y. (2005). Asian American adolescents and the stress of acculturation: Differences in gender and generational levels (Unpublished doctor-al dissertation). Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.
  144. Peng, R. Z., & Wu, W. P. (2016). Measuring intercultural contact and its effects on intercultural competence: A structural equation modeling approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 53, 16-27. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2016.05.003
  145. Perry, L. B., & Southwell, L. (2011). Developing intercultural understanding and skills: Models and approaches. Intercultural Education, 22(6), 453-466. https:// doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2011.644948
  146. Piątkowska, K. (2015). From cultural knowledge to intercultural communicative competence: Changing perspectives on the role of culture in foreign language teaching. Intercultural Education, 26(5), 397-408. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2015.1092674
  147. Reid, E. (2015). Techniques developing intercultural communicative competences in English language lessons. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 939-943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.011
  148. Risager, K. (2007). Language and culture pedagogy: From a national to a transnational paradigm. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599613
  149. *Rodríguez, L. M. G., & Puyal, M. B. (2012). Promoting intercultural competence through literature in CLIL contexts. Journal of the Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies, 34(2), 105-124.
  150. *Root, E., & Ngampornchai, A. (2013). “I Came Back as a New Human Being” student descriptions of intercultural competence acquired through education abroad experiences. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(5), 513-532. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315312468008
  151. *Rothwell, J. (2011). Bodies and language: Process drama and intercultural language learning in a beginner language classroom. Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance, 16(4), 575-594. https://doi.org/10.1080/13569783.2011.617106
  152. Ruiz-Funes, M. (2015). Exploring the potential of second/foreign language writing for language learning: The effects of task factors and learner variables. Journal of Second Language Writing, 28, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jslw.2015.02.001
  153. Sample, S. G. (2013). Developing intercultural learners through the international curriculum. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(5), 554-572. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315312469986
  154. Scally, J. (2015). Intercultural competence development in three different study abroad program types. Intercultural Communication Studies, 24(2), 35-60.
  155. Scarino, A., & Liddicoat, A. J. (2009). Language teaching and learning: A guide. Curriculum Corporation.
  156. Schartner, A. (2016). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence: A longitudinal case study of international postgraduate students at a British university. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(4), 402-418. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1073737
  157. Schenker, T. (2012). Intercultural competence and cultural learning through telecollaboration. CALICO Journal, 29(3), 449-470. https://doi.org/10.11139/cj.29.3.449-470
  158. Seidlhofer, B (2007). Common property: English as a lingua franca in Europe. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International handbook of language teaching (pp. 137-150). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-46301-8_11
  159. Sercu, L. (2006). The foreign language and intercultural competence teacher: The acquisition of a new professional identity. Intercultural Education, 17(1), 55-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980500502321
  160. Sharifian, F. (Ed.). (2009). English as an international language: Perspectives and pedagogical issues. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691231
  161. Shiri, S. (2015). Intercultural communicative competence development during and after language study abroad: Insights from Arabic. Foreign Language Annals, 48(4), 541-569. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12162
  162. Smakova, K., & Paulsrud, B. (2020). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching in Kazakhstan. Issues in Educational Research, 30(2), 691-708. Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/iier30/smakova.pdf
  163. Solhaug, T., & Kristensen, N. N. (2020). Gender and intercultural competence: Analysis of intercultural competence among upper secondary school students in Denmark and Norway. Educational Psychology, 40(1), 120-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2019.1646410
  164. Solhaug, T., & Osler, A. (2017). Intercultural empathy among Norwegian students: An inclusive citizenship perspective. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22(1), 89-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1357768
  165. Song, J. (2020). The effects of a short-term study abroad program on developing students’ intercultural competence and oral proficiency. Linguistic Research, 37(special edition), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.17250/khisli.37 ..202009.001
  166. Su, Y. C. (2011a). Promoting intercultural understanding and reducing stereotypes: Incorporating the cultural portfolio project into Taiwan’s EFL college classes. Educational Studies, 37(1), 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055691003729039
  167. Su, Y. C. (2011b). The effects of the cultural portfolio project on cultural and EFL learning in Taiwan’s EFL college classes. Language Teaching Re-search, 15(2), 230-252. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168810388721
  168. Sung, H., & Padilla, A. (1998). Student motivation, parental attitudes, and involvement in the learning of Asian languages in elementary and secondary schools. Modern Language Journal, 82(2), 205-216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01193.x
  169. Tecedor, M., & Vasseur, R. (2020). Videoconferencing and the development of intercultural competence: Insights from students’ self‐reflections. Foreign Language Annals, 53(4), 761-784. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12495
  170. Ting-Toomey, S., & Kurogi, A. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face-negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 187-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0147-1767(98)00004-2
  171. Tirnaz, S., & Haddad Narafshan, M. (2020). Promoting intercultural sensitivity and classroom climate in EFL classrooms: The use of intercultural TV ad-vertisements. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2018.10.001
  172. Tolosa, C., Biebricher, C., East, M., & Howard, J. (2018). Intercultural language teaching as a catalyst for teacher inquiry. Teaching and Teacher Education, 70, 227-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.11.027/
  173. Tompkins, A., Cook, T., Miller, E., & LePeau, L. A. (2017). Gender influences on students’ study abroad participation and intercultural competence. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 54(2), 204-2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/19496591.2017.1284671
  174. Tosuncuoglu, I. (2019). Intercultural communicative competence awareness of Turkish students and instructors at university level. International Journal of Higher Education, 8(1), 44-54. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v8n1p44
  175. Tran, T. Q., & Duong, T. M. (2018). The effectiveness of the intercultural language communicative teaching model for EFL learners. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 3(1), 6-17. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/s40862-018-0048-0
  176. Truong, L. B., & Tran, L. T. (2014). Students’ intercultural development through language learning in Vietnamese tertiary education: A case study on the use of film as an innovative approach. Language and Intercultural Communication, 14(2), 207-225. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2013.849717
  177. Tudini, V. (2007). Negotiation and intercultural learning in Italian native speaker chat rooms. Modern Language Journal, 91(4), 577-601. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00624.x
  178. Van der Kroon, L., Jauregi, K., & ten Thije, J. D. (2015). Telecollaboration in foreign language curricula. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 5(3), 20-41. https://10.4018/ijcallt.2015070102
  179. Vande Berg, M., Connor-Linton, J., & Paige, M. P. (2009). The Georgetown consortium project: Interventions for student learning abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 1-75. https://doi.org/10.36 366/frontiers.v18i1.251
  180. Vandergrift, L., & Baker, S. (2015). Learner variables in second language listening comprehension: An exploratory path analysis. Language Learning, 65(2), 390-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12105
  181. Vuksanovic, J. (2018). ESL Learners’ intercultural competence, L2 attitudes and WEB 2.0 use in American culture. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 46. http://www.immi.se/intercultural/past-issues.html
  182. Wagner, M., & Byram, M. (2017). Intercultural citizenship. In Y. Y. Kim (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of intercultural communication (pp. 1-6). John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118783665.ieicc0043
  183. Wagner, M., Perugini, D. C., & Byram, M. (Eds.). (2017). Teaching intercultural competence across the age range: From theory to practice. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783098910
  184. Wang, J., Zou, B., Wang, D., & Xing, M. (2013). Students’ perception of a wiki plat-form and the impact of wiki engagement on intercultural communication. System, 41(2), 245-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.04.004
  185. Wang, Y., & Kulich, S. J. (2015). Does context count? Developing and assessing intercultural competence through an interview-and model-based domes-tic course design in China. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 38-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.013
  186. Watson, J. R., & Wolfel, R. L. (2015). The intersection of language and culture in study abroad: Assessment and analysis of study abroad outcomes. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 25(1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v25i1.345
  187. Westrick, J. (2004). The influence of service-learning on intercultural sensitivity: A quantitative study. Journal of Research in International Education, 3(3), 277-299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240904047356
  188. Yashima, T., Nishida, R., & Mizumoto, A. (2017). Influence of learner beliefs and gender on the motivating power of L2 selves. Modern Language Journal, 101(4), 691-711. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12430
  189. Yildiz, S. (2009). Social presence in the web-based classroom: Implications for intercultural communication. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(1), 46-65. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315308317654
  190. Young, T. J., & Sachdev, I. (2011). Intercultural communicative competence: Exploring English language teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Awareness, 20(2), 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2010.540328
  191. Yu, Q., & Van Maele, J. (2018). Fostering intercultural awareness in a Chinese English reading class. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 41(3), 357-375. https://doi.org/10.1515/cjal-2018-0027
  192. Zarate, G., Gohard-Radenkovic, A., Lussier, D., & Penz, H. (2004). Cultural mediation in language learning and teaching. Council of Europe Publishing.
  193. Zhang, L. (2020). Developing students’ intercultural competence through authentic video in language education. Journal of Intercultural Communication Re-search, 49(4), 330-345. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2020.1785528
  194. Zhang, X., & Zhou, M. (2019). Interventions to promote learners’ intercultural competence: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 71, 31-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.04.006