Examining the role of English language proficiency, language learning anxiety, and self-regulation skills in EMI students’ academic success
PDF

Keywords

English medium instruction
individual differences
discipline-based differences
structural equation modelling (SEM)
general English proficiency
academic success

How to Cite

Yuksel, D., Soruç , A., Horzum, B., & McKinley, J. (2023). Examining the role of English language proficiency, language learning anxiety, and self-regulation skills in EMI students’ academic success. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 13(2), 399–426. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.38280

Number of views: 724


Number of downloads: 971

Abstract

This study focuses on the predictive power of linguistic (i.e., general English proficiency; identified simply as “proficiency” in this paper) and non-linguistic (i.e., language learning anxiety and self-regulation) factors on the academic success of English medium instruction (EMI) students studying in engineering and social sciences programs in a Turkish university setting. Data were collected from 705 conveniently sampled EMI students of four academic subjects (international relations; N = 158; business administration; N = 184; mechatronics engineering; N = 181; mechanical engineering: N = 182) representing two disciplines (i.e., social sciences and engineering) from a public university. Pearson correlation and SEM analyses were run to determine the relationships among language learning anxiety, self-regulation, proficiency and EMI success. Findings revealed that anxiety and self-regulation skills do affect EMI students’ proficiency irrespective of academic disciplines. Both self-regulation and proficiency impacted EMI students’ academic success in engineering, while only proficiency predicted academic success in the social sciences. These results are discussed and pedagogical implications are given related to the impact of linguistic and non-linguistic factors in EMI contexts.

https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.38280
PDF

References

Altay, M., Curle, S., Yuksel, D., & Soruç, A. (2022). Investigating academic achievement of English medium instruction courses in Turkey. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 12(1), 117-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.1.6

Andrade, M. S., & Evans, N. W. (2013). Principles and practices for response in second language writing: Developing self-regulated learners. Taylor and Francis.

Bai, B. (2018). Understanding primary school students’ use of self-regulated writing strategies through think-aloud protocols. System, 78, 15-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.07.003

Bai, B., & Wang, J. (2023). The role of growth mindset, self-efficacy and intrinsic value in self-regulated learning and English language learning achievements. Language Teaching Research, 27(1), 207-228. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820933190

Bolton, K., & Kuteeva, M. (2012). English as an academic language at a Swedish university: Parallel language use and the “threat” of English. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(5), 429-447. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.670241

Cambridge, ESOL. (2014). Cambridge proficiency English test. Cambridge University Press.

Cheng, Y. S. (2017). Development and preliminary validation of four brief measures of L2 language-skill-specific anxiety. System, 68, 15-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.06.009

Chun, S., Kim, H., Park, C. K., McDonald, K., Sun Ha, O., Kim, D. L., & Lee, S. M. (2017). South Korean students’ responses to English-medium instruction courses. Social Behavior and Personality, 45(6), 951-965. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.6049

Curle, S., Yuksel, D., Soruç, A., & Altay, M. (2020). Predictors of English medium instruction academic success: English proficiency versus first language medium. System, 95, 102378. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102378

Dearden, J., & Macaro, E. (2016). Higher education teachers’ attitudes towards English medium instruction: A three-country comparison. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 455-486. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/sllt.2016.6.3.5

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual factors in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315779553

Evans, S. (2000). Classroom language use in Hong Kong’s English-medium secondary schools. Educational Research Journal, 15(1), 19-43.

Galloway, N., Numajiri, T., & Rees, N. (2020). The “internationalization,” or “Englishization,” of higher education in East Asia. Higher Education, 80(3), 395-414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00486-1

Griffiths, C., & Soruç, A. (2020). Individual differences in language learning. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-52900-0

Guo, Y., Xu, J., & Liu, X. (2018). English language learners’ use of self-regulatory strategies for foreign language anxiety in China. System, 76, 49-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.05.001

Henry, A. (2019). Directed motivational currents: Extending the theory of L2 vision. In M. Lamb, K. Csizér, A. Henry, & S. Ryan (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of motivation for language learning (pp. 139-161). Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28380-3_7

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x

Hu, J., & Gao, X. (2018). Self-regulated strategic writing for academic studies in an English-medium-instruction context. Language and Education, 32(1), 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2017.1373804

Iwaniec, J. (2014). Motivation of pupils from southern Poland to learn English. System, 45, 67-78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.05.003

Kaya, S., Yuksel, D., & Curle, S. (2021). The effects of language learning and maths mindsets on academic success in an engineering program in Turkey. Journal of Engineering Education, 3(1), 50-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jee.20499

Kırkgöz, Y. (2009). Students’ and lecturers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of foreign language instruction in an English-medium university in Turkey. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(1), 81-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13562510802602640

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press.

Kuteeva, M., & Airey, J. (2014). Disciplinary differences in the use of English in higher education: Reflections on recent language policy developments. Higher Education, 67(5), 533-549. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9660-6

Lasagabaster, D. (2016). The relationship between motivation, gender, L1 and possible selves in English-medium instruction. International Journal of Multilingualism, 13(3), 315-332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2015.1105806

Macaro, E. (2018). English medium instruction. Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30687/978-88-6969-227-7/001

Macaro, E., Curle, S., Pun, J., An, J., & Dearden, J. (2018). A systematic review of English medium instruction in higher education. Language Teaching, 51(1), 36-76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000350

Margić, B. D., & Vodopija-Krstanović, I. (2018). Language development for English-medium instruction: Teachers’ perceptions, reflections, and learning. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 35, 31-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2018.06.005

McKinley, J. & Galloway, N. (Eds.) (2022). English medium instruction practices in higher education: International perspectives. Bloomsbury. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350167889

Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Pearson Longman.

Oteir, N. I., & Al-Otaibi, N. A. (2019). Foreign language anxiety: A systematic review. Arab World English Journal, 10(3), 309-317. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol10no3.21

Rose, H., McKinley, J., Xu, X., & Zhou, S. (2020). Investigating policy and implementation of English medium instruction in higher education institutions in China. London: British Council. Retrieved June 11, 2021.

Rose, H., Curle, S., Aizawa, I., & Thompson, G. (2020). What drives success in English medium taught courses? The interplay between language proficiency, academic skills, and motivation. Studies in Higher Education, 45(11), 2149-2161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1590690

Sahan, K., Rose, H., & Macaro, E. (2021). Models of EMI pedagogies: At the interface of language use and interaction. System, 101, 102616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102616

Sandström, A., & Neghina, C. (2017). English-taught bachelor’s programs: Internationalizing European higher education. European Association for International Education.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.

Soruç, A., & Griffiths, C. (2018). English as a medium of instruction: Students’ strategies. ELT Journal, 72(1), 38-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccx017

Soruç, A., Dinler, A., & Griffiths, C. (2018). Listening comprehension strategies of EMI students in Turkey. In Y. Kırkgoz & K. Dikilitas (Eds.), Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 265-287). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70214-8_15

Soruç, A., Altay, M., Curle, S., & Yuksel, D. (2021). Students’ academic language-related challenges in English Medium Instruction: The role of English proficiency and language gain. System, 103, 102651. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102651

Soruç, A., Pawlak, M., Yuksel, D., & Horzum, B. (2022). Investigating the impact of linguistic and non-linguistic factors on EMI academic success. System, 107, 102794. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2022.102794

Suzuki, S., Harada, T., Eguchi, M., Kudo, S., & Moriya, R. (2017). Investigating the relationship between students’ attitudes toward English-medium instruction and L2 Speaking. Essays on English Language and Literature, 46(1), 25-41.

Thompson, A. S., & Lee, J. (2014). The impact of experience abroad and language proficiency on language learning anxiety. TESOL Quarterly, 48(2), 252-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.125

Thompson, G., Aizawa, I., Curle, S., & Rose, H. (2019). Exploring the role of self-efficacy beliefs and learner success in English medium instruction. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1651819

Wang, W., & Zhan, J. (2020). The relationship between English language learner characteristics and online self-regulation: A structural equation modeling approach. Sustainability, 12(7), 3009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12073009

Wellington, J., & Osborne, J. (2001). Language and literacy in science education. Open University Press.

Xie, W., & Curle, S. (2022). Success in English medium instruction in China: Significant indicators and implications. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 25(2), 585-597. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1703898

Zheng, Y., & Cheng, L. (2018). How does anxiety influence language performance? From the perspectives of foreign language classroom anxiety and cognitive test anxiety. Language Testing in Asia, 8(1), 1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-018-0065-4

Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166-183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831207312909

Yuksel, D., Soruç, A., Altay, M., & Curle, S. (2021). A longitudinal study at an English medium instruction university in Turkey: The interplay between English language improvement and academic success. Applied Linguistics Review. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0097